Institute Prevision Social

Asunción, Paraguay

Institute Prevision Social

Asunción, Paraguay

Time filter

Source Type

Papais-Alvarenga R.M.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Papais-Alvarenga R.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vasconcelos C.C.F.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Vasconcelos C.C.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 41 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2%showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8%showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with a composite substrate of mouse tissues in 200 NMOSD cases was positive in people with NMO (95/162; 58.6%), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (10/30; 33.3%) and bilateral or recurrent optic neuritis (8/8; 100%). No association of NMO-IgG antibody positivity was found with gender, age at onset, ethnicity, early or late onset forms, disease course, or long-term severe disability. The relative frequency of NMO among relapsingremitting MS (RRMS) + NMO cases in SA was 14.0%. Despite the high degree of miscegenation found in SA, MS affects three quarters of all patients with IIDD, mainly white young women who share similar clinical characteristics to those in Western populations in the northern hemisphere, with the exception of ethnicity; approximately one-third of all cases occur among non-white individuals. At the last assessment, the majority of RRMS patients showed mild disability, and the risk for secondary progression was significantly superior among those of African ethnicity. NMO comprises 11.8% of all IIDD cases in SA, affecting mostly young African-Brazilian women, evolving with a recurrent course and causing moderate or severe disability in both ethnic groups. The South-North gradient with increasing NMO and non-white individuals from Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Venezuela confirmed previous studies showing a higher frequency of NMO among non-white populations. ©2015 Papais-Alvarenga et al.


Baskin J.L.,Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles | Baskin J.L.,University of Southern California | Lezcano E.,Institute Prevision Social | Lezcano E.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer | And 12 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2013

Cure rates among children with brain tumors differ between low-income and high-income countries. To evaluate causes of these differences, we analyzed aspects of care provided to pediatric neuro-oncology patients in a low middle-income South American country. Methods. Three methods were used to evaluate treatment of children with brain tumors in Paraguay: (1) a quantitative needs assessment questionnaire for local treating physicians, (2) site visits to assess 3 tertiary care centers in Asunción and a satellite clinic in an underdeveloped area, and (3) interviews with health care workers from relevant disciplines to determine their perceptions of available resources. Treatment failure was defined as abandonment of therapy, relapse, or death. Results. All 3 tertiary care facilities have access to chemotherapy and pediatric oncologists but lack training and tools for neuropathology and optimal neurosurgery. The 2 public hospitals also lack access to appropriate radiological tests and timely radiotherapy. These results demonstrate disparities in Paraguay, with rates of treatment failure ranging from 37% to 83% among the 3 facilities. Conclusions. National and center-specific deficiencies in resources to manage pediatric brain tumors contribute to poor outcomes in Paraguay and suggest that both national and center-specific interventions are warranted to improve care. Disparities in Paraguay reflect different levels of governmental and philanthropic support, program development, and socio-economic status of patients and families, which must be considered when developing targeted strategies to improve management. Effective targeted interventions can serve as a model to develop pediatric brain tumor programs in other lowand middle-income countries.© The Author(s) 2012.


PubMed | Rio de Janeiro State Federal University, Hospital Santa Marcelina, NeuroLogica, Hospital Britanico and 13 more.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.287.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with a composite substrate of mouse tissues in 200 NMOSD cases was positive in people with NMO (95/162; 58.6%), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (10/30; 33.3%) and bilateral or recurrent optic neuritis (8/8; 100%). No association of NMO-IgG antibody positivity was found with gender, age at onset, ethnicity, early or late onset forms, disease course, or long-term severe disability. The relative frequency of NMO among relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) + NMO cases in SA was 14.0%. Despite the high degree of miscegenation found in SA, MS affects three quarters of all patients with IIDD, mainly white young women who share similar clinical characteristics to those in Western populations in the northern hemisphere, with the exception of ethnicity; approximately one-third of all cases occur among non-white individuals. At the last assessment, the majority of RRMS patients showed mild disability, and the risk for secondary progression was significantly superior among those of African ethnicity. NMO comprises 11.8% of all IIDD cases in SA, affecting mostly young African-Brazilian women, evolving with a recurrent course and causing moderate or severe disability in both ethnic groups. The South-North gradient with increasing NMO and non-white individuals from Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Venezuela confirmed previous studies showing a higher frequency of NMO among non-white populations.


Oertell J.,Institute Prevision Social | Caballero C.,Institute Patologia e Investigacion | Iglesias M.,Institute Prevision Social | Chaux A.,Institute Patologia e Investigacion | And 7 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2011

Aims: About 10-20% of all penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) originate in the foreskin, but knowledge about preputial precursor and associated lesions is scant. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of various precancerous and cancerous lesions exclusively affecting the foreskin, and to describe their pathological features. Methods and results: One hundred consecutive circumcision specimens from symptomatic patients living in a region of high penile cancer incidence were analysed. Clinical diagnoses included mostly phimosis and chronic balanoposthitis (40 and 35 cases, respectively), but also a tumour mass (11 cases). Histopathological lesions found included: squamous hyperplasia in 61 cases; lichen sclerosus in 53 cases; penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) in 30 cases (all differentiated PeIN, with two cases showing multicentric foci of basaloid and warty-basaloid PeIN); and invasive SCC in 11 cases (three usual, three pseudohyperplastic, two verrucous-pseudohyperplastic, and one case each of basaloid, papillary and mixed usual-basaloid carcinomas). Lichen sclerosus was present in all low-grade SCC cases. Patients with no lesions were younger (mean age 44years) than those with precursor lesions (mean age 54years) or with invasive SCC (mean age 68years). Immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a was performed in 19 precancerous lesions. All differentiated PeINs (18 lesions) were negative, and one basaloid PeIN was positive. Conclusions: The frequent coexistence of lichen sclerosus, squamous hyperplasia, differentiated PeIN and low-grade SCC suggests a common non-human papillomavirus related pathogenic pathway for preputial lesions, and highlights the importance of circumcision in symptomatic patients for the prevention of penile cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.


PubMed | University of Santiago de Chile, Anestesiologa, Institute Prevision Social, Hospital Britanico Of Montevideo and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion | Year: 2016

A survey was conducted in order to obtain a profile of the practice of regional anesthesia in South America, and determine the limitations of its use.After institutional ethics committee approval, a link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anaesthesiologists in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Panam, Paraguay, Per, and Uruguay. The questionnaire was processed anonymously.A total of 1,260 completed questionnaires were received. The results showed that 97.6% of the anaesthesiologists that responded used regional anaesthesia in clinical practice, 66.9% performed peripheral nerve block (PNB) regularly, 21.6% used continuous PNB techniques, and 4.6% used stimulating catheters. The primary source of training was residency programs. As regards PNB, the most common performed were interscalene (52.3%), axillary (45.1%), femoral (43.2%), and ankle block (43%). As regards the localisation technique employed, 16% used paraesthesia, 44.2% used a peripheral nerve stimulator, and 18.1% ultrasound guidance.Regional anaesthesia and PNB are commonly used among South American anaesthesiologists. Considering that each country has its own profile for use, this profile should guide training in clinical practice, especially in residency programs.

Loading Institute Prevision Social collaborators
Loading Institute Prevision Social collaborators