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Joyal C.C.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Joyal C.C.,Philippe Pinel Institute of Montreal | Cossette A.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Lapierre V.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: Although several theories and treatment plans use unusual sexual fantasies (SF) as a way to identify deviancy, they seldom describe how the fantasies referred to were determined to be unusual. Aim: The main goal of this study was to determine which SF are rare, unusual, common, or typical from a statistical point of view among a relatively large sample of adults recruited from the general population. A secondary goal was to provide a statistical comparison of the nature and intensity of sexual fantasies for men and women. This study also aims at demonstrating with both quantitative and qualitative analyses that certain fantasies often considered to be unusual are common. Methods: An Internet survey was conducted with 1,516 adults (799 ♀; 717 ♂) who ranked 55 different SF and wrote their own favorite SF. Each SF was rated as statistically rare (2.3% or less), unusual (15.9% or less), common (more than 50%), or typical (more than 84.1% of the sample). Main Outcome Measures: An extended version of the Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire with an open question. Results: Only two sexual fantasies were found to be rare for women or men, while nine others were unusual. Thirty sexual fantasies were common for one or both genders, and only five were typical. These results were confirmed with qualitative analyses. Submission and domination themes were not only common for both men and women, but they were also significantly related to each other. Moreover, the presence of a single submissive fantasy was a significant predictor of overall scores for all SF in both genders. Conclusion: Care should be taken before labeling an SF as unusual, let alone deviant. It suggested that the focus should be on the effect of a sexual fantasy rather than its content. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Daigle M.S.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Daigle M.S.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Daigle M.S.,Philippe Pinel Institute of Montreal | Labelle R.J.,University of Quebec at Montreal
Crisis | Year: 2012

Background: Thousands of children are bereaved each year by suicide, yet there exists very little literature specifically on the psychological care, programs, and interventions available to help them. Aims: (1) To build and validate theoretical models for the Group Therapy Program for Children Bereaved by Suicide (PCBS); (2) to test these models in a preliminary evaluation. Methods: In the first part, we built theoretical models, which were then validated by scientists and clinicians. In the second part, the sessions of thePCBS were observed and rated. The participating children were tested pre- and postprogram. Results: Positive changes were observed in the participating children in terms of basicsafety, realistic understanding and useful knowledge, inappropriate behaviors, physical and psychological symptoms, child-parent and child-child communication, capacity for social and affective reinvestment, actualization of newmodels of self and the world, self-esteem, awareness and use of tools, cognitive, verbal, written and drawing abilities, cognitive dissonance, ambivalence, antagonism, and isolation. Conclusions: The changes reported in the bereaved children show that the PCBS has some efficacy. © 2012 Hogrefe Publishing.

Dumais A.,University of Montreal | Potvin S.,University of Montreal | Joyal C.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Allaire J.-F.,Philippe Pinel Institute of Montreal | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2011

Objectives: This study is an exploration of the role of SUD and impulsivity in individuals with schizophrenia who are at higher risk of serious violence (SV). Methods: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed on a sample of 139 males meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD). Results: Impulsivity was the main dimension differentiating individuals. SUD and SV were strongly linked. CA yielded four clusters; one related to serious violence, SUD and a higher incarceration rate. Conclusions: Subgroups of SSD at risk of SV were found. SUD appear to be a major risk factor for SV and incarceration. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Horn M.,University of Montreal | Horn M.,University Medical Center | Potvin S.,University of Montreal | Allaire J.-F.,Philippe Pinel Institute of Montreal | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective: Borderline and antisocial personality disorders (PDs) share common clinical features (impulsivity, aggressiveness, substance use disorders [SUDs], and suicidal behaviours) that are greatly overrepresented in prison populations. These disorders have been associated biologically with testosterone and cortisol levels. However, the associations are ambiguous and the subject of controversy, perhaps because these heterogeneous disorders have been addressed as unitary constructs. A consideration of profiles of people, rather than of exclusive diagnoses, might yield clearer relationships. Methods: In our study, multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were employed to identify subgroups among 545 newly convicted inmates. The groups were then compared in terms of clinical features and biological markers, including levels of cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and sulfoconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S). Results: Four clusters with differing psychiatric, criminal, and biological profiles emerged. Clinically, one group had intermediate scores for each of the tested clinical features. Another group comprised people with little comorbidity. Two others displayed severe impulsivity, PD, and SUD. Biologically, cortisol levels were lowest in the last 2 groups and highest in the group with less comorbidity. In keeping with previous findings reported in the literature, testosterone was higher in a younger population with severe psychiatric symptoms. However, some apparently comparable behavioural outcomes were found to be related to distinct biological profiles. No differences were observed for estradiol, progesterone, or DHEA-S levels. Conclusions: The results not only confirm the importance of biological markers in the study of personality features but also demonstrate the need to consider the role of comorbidities and steroid coregulation.

Dumais A.,University of Montreal | Cote G.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Cote G.,Philippe Pinel Institute of Montreal | Lesage A.,Fernand Seguin Research Center | Lesage A.,University of Montreal
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Objective: To identify the clinical specificity of men with severe mental illness (aged 18 to 40 years) by legal status. Method: Our study compared 85 inmates with 66 involuntarily hospitalized patients (IHPs) and 50 voluntarily hospitalized patients (VHPs) with at least one Axis I diagnosis of psychosis or major affective disorder. Sociodemographics, medical information, and criminal history were drawn from interviews, medical records, and official criminal records. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to determine Axis I disorders and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Psychopathy was measured with the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised. Results: We found that inmates had a lower level of schooling (P = 0.001), were more likely to have been in an intimate relationship (P < 0.001), and were less likely to have a psychiatric hospitalization history (P < 0.001), compared with hospitalized patients. Inmates were also more likely to meet criteria for delusional disorders or psychosis not otherwise specified (P < 0.001) and major depression (P = 0.001). IHPs were more likely to meet schizophrenia spectrum disorder criteria (P < 0.001). Inmates had a higher level of comorbidity involving ASPD (P < 0.001), psychopathy (P < 0.001), and substance misuse (P < 0.001). IHPs showed an intermediate level between inmates and VHPs for these comorbid disorders. VHPs had the lowest level of comorbidity with Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusion: Our clinical specificity hypothesis was supported: different psychopathological characteristics and social functioning profiles were identified by legal status. Specific integrated treatments should be considered for inmates and IHPs.

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