Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal

Montréal, Canada

Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal

Montréal, Canada
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Trebuchon C.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | Leveillee S.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2017

Objectives: Despite societal changes in recent decades, the criminality of women remains far less studied than that of men, even more so when it comes to violent crime. The present study examines specific psychological factors such as personality disorders, impulsivity, dissociative symptoms as well as putative differences in demographic and background characteristics between women who have victimised a family member versus an acquaintance or a stranger. Materials and methods: This study compares a group of incarcerated women who have committed a violent crime against a family member (Close-group = 16) with a group of incarcerated women who have committed a violent crime against an acquaintance or a stranger (Acquaintance/Stranger group = 11). These women were 19 to 46 years old at the time of the offense (M = 33.59, S.D.=. 7.617). More specifically, at the time of the offense, 8 (29.6%) women were 36 to 40 years old, 10 (37%) lived with a partner, 21 (77.8%) had children, and 14 (51.9%) were employed. Furthermore, it appears that, throughout their lifetime, 15 (55.6%) women were physically abused, 13 (48.1%) were sexually abused, and 9 (33.3%) had made at least one suicide attempt. Finally, 9 (33.3%) women had prior criminal record. To complete this study, we used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) Overview and a questionnaire on background data and life events to obtain demographic data and other specific information on the women's life, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) to assess the personality disorders, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) to measure the level of impulsivity, and finally, the Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES-II) to obtain the level of dissociative symptoms. We hypothesized that women in the Acquaintance/Stranger group would have more personality issues and that they would be more impulsive than women in the Close-group. In addition, we measured whether there is any significant difference between the two groups in terms of the three dimensions of the BIS-11 as well as regarding severe dissociative symptoms (DES-II. >. 29). Results: No significant differences were found among the two groups in terms of demographic and background characteristics except for age of victims and prior criminal record. Indeed, more women in the Acquaintance/Stranger group had assaulted an adult (P <. 0.05) and had a prior criminal record (P <. 0.05) than in the Close-group. In terms of the first hypothesis, there was a significant difference in personality disorders among the two groups, with more women in the Acquaintance/Stranger group having a personality disorder (P <. 0.05). There was also a significant difference in impulsivity among the two groups, again in favor of the Acquaintance/Stranger group (P <. 0.01). Other results showed a significant difference between the two groups on each dimension of the BIS-11 (P <. 0.05) while there was no significant difference in terms of severe dissociative symptoms. Conclusions: These results suggest that women who commit violent crimes are not a homogenous group and that further research is needed to better understand this problematic. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Cote G.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Cote G.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | Crocker A.G.,McGill University | Crocker A.G.,University Institute of Mental Health | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine whether the items in one of the most widely validated instruments of violence risk assessment, the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20), are used in review board hearings to assess the risk of violence by people found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD). Method: This study was conducted from October 2004 to August 2006 in Quebec's sole forensic psychiatric hospital and 2 large civil psychiatric hospitals designated for the care of people declared NCRMD in the Montreal metropolitan area. The risk assessments presented by clinicians at annual review board hearings and the boards' rationale for the release or detention of people found NCRMD were contrasted with the risk assessments conducted by the research team using the HCR-20. The final sample was comprised of 96 men. Results: Very few of the risk factors identified by prior research (HCR-20 items) were mentioned in the hearing process, whether in clinical reports, discussions during the hearing, or in the disposition justification. Conclusions: The findings confirm that there remains a significant gap between research evidence and risk assessment practice.

Hodgins S.,King's College London | De Brito S.A.,University of London | Chhabra P.,Broadmoor Hospital | Cote G.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | Cote G.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Objectives: About 50% of men with antisocial personality disorder (APD) present a comorbid anxiety disorder. Historically, it was thought that anxiety limited criminal activity and the development of APD, but recent evidence suggests that heightened responsiveness to threat may lead to persistent violent behaviour. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of APD comorbid with anxiety disorders among offenders and the association of these comorbid disorders with violent offending. Method: A random sample of 495 male penitentiary inmates completed an interview using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. After excluding men with psychotic disorders, 279 with APD were retained. All authorized access to their criminal records. Results: Two-thirds of the prisoners with APD presented a lifetime anxiety disorder. Among them, one-half had the onset of their anxiety disorder before they were aged 16 years. Among the offenders with APD, those with, compared with those without, anxiety disorders presented significantly more symptoms of APD, were more likely to have begun their criminal careers before they were aged 15 years, to have diagnoses of alcohol and (or) drug abuse and (or) dependence, and to have experienced suicidal ideas and attempts. While there were no differences in the mean number of convictions for violent offences between APD prisoners with and without anxiety disorders, more of those with anxiety disorders had been convicted of serious crimes involving interpersonal violence. Conclusions: Among men with APD, a substantial subgroup present life-long anxiety disorders. This pattern of comorbidity may reflect a distinct mechanism underlying violent behaviour and signalling the need for specific treatments.

Basque C.,Center des Adolescents | Toupin J.,Université de Sherbrooke | Cote G.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2013

Studies show that identifying persistent delinquents on the basis of early antisocial conduct yields a significant error rate. However, evaluating childhood or adolescent psychopathic traits is likely to improve matters in this regard. This study seeks to verify the contribution of psychopathic traits in adolescence to antisocial conduct prediction in early adulthood. To this end, a French version of the Psychopathy Checklist -Screening Version (PCL-SV) adapted to adolescents is used to evaluate psychopathic traits in 27 youths aged 15 to 19 years recruited in youth centres and presenting behavioral problems reaching a clinical threshold. The PCL-SV scores contribute significantly above and beyond indices of delinquent behavior to predict self-reported antisocial conduct 2 years later and, specifically, to predict criminal versatility and violent recidivism © The Author(s) 2012.

PubMed | McGill University, University of Angers, Lawson Health Research Institute, Psychiatric Hospital and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of forensic and legal medicine | Year: 2016

To examine the criminological circumstances of homicide in a group of French murderers with and without major mental disorders (MMD) stratified by the perpetrators gender.Sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological variables were collected from the psychiatric expert reports of 210 cases of homicide heard at the High Court of Angers, France. Murderers were categorized according to MMD diagnosis and gender.Among 210 murderers, 17.6% (n = 37) had a MMD (20% of the female perpetrators). Logistic regression models showed that being a murderer with a MMD was associated with younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio OR = 1.03, P = 0.034), high school education (OR = 2.48, P = 0.036), previous use of psychiatric services (OR = 4.75, P = 0.003), alcohol intoxication (OR = 2.71, P = 0.027), and delusional state (OR = 3.96, P = 0.002) at the time of the homicide. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that female murderers with a MMD were more prone to have depression and to use drowning as a method than those without a MMD, and that male murderers with a MMD more often had a high school education and delusional beliefs at the time of the homicide than those without a MMD.Specific profiles of criminological circumstances of homicide could help to explore the risk of homicide in female and male patients with a MMD.

Potvin S.,University of Montréal | Tikasz A.,University of Montréal | Lungu O.,University of Montréal | Lungu O.,Center for Research in Aging | And 6 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Objectives: To examine the neural correlates of emotion processing in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia (SCZ-TR). Methods: Twenty-two SCZ-TR patients on clozapine, 24 schizophrenia patients on antipsychotics other than clozapine, and 39 healthy controls were scanned using functional neuroimaging while viewing positive, negative and neutral images. Results: Emotionally-laden images (positive and negative) elicited hyper-activations in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and left cerebellum in SCZ-TR patients, compared to the two other groups. Similarly, neutral images prompted hyper-activations in the cingulate gyrus in SCZ-TR patients, relative to the two other groups. Conclusions: Treatment resistance is associated with neuro-functional hyper-activations in schizophrenia patients during emotion processing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Renaud P.,University of Québec | Renaud P.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | Trottier D.,University of Montréal | Nolet K.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | And 4 more authors.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2014

The eye movements and penile responses of 20 male participants were recorded while they were immersed with virtual sexual stimuli. These participants were divided into two groups according to their capacity to focus their attention in immersion (high and low focus). In order to understand sexual self-regulation better, we subjected participants to three experimental conditions: (a) immersion with a preferred sexual stimulus, without sexual inhibition; (b) immersion with a preferred sexual stimulus, with sexual inhibition; and (c) immersion with a neutral stimulus. A significant difference was observed between the effects of each condition on erectile response and scanpath. The groups differed on self-regulation of their erectile responses and on their scanpath patterns. High focus participants had more difficulties than low focus participants with inhibiting their sexual responses and displayed less scattered eye movement trajectories over the critical areas of the virtual sexual stimuli. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual self-regulation and cognitive absorption in virtual immersion. In addition, the use of validated virtual sexual stimuli is presented as a methodological improvement over static and moving pictures, since it paves the way for the study of the role of social interaction in an ecologically valid and well-controlled way. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Renaud P.,University of Québec | Renaud P.,Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal | Trottier D.,University of Montréal | Rouleau J.-L.,University of Montréal | And 4 more authors.
Virtual Reality | Year: 2014

Penile plethysmography (PPG) is the gold standard for the assessment of sexual interests, especially among sex offenders of children. Nonetheless, this method faces some ethical limitations inherent to the nature of its stimuli and could benefit from the improvement of its ecological validity. The use of computer-generated characters (CGC) in virtual immersion for PPG assessment might help address these issues. A new application developed to design made-to-measure anatomically correct virtual characters compatible with the Tanner developmental stages is presented. The main purpose of this study was to determine how the virtual reality (VR) modality compares to the standard auditory modality on their capacity to generate sexual arousal profiles and deviance differentials indicative of sexual interests. The erectile responses of 22 sex offenders of children and 42 non-deviant adult males were recorded. While both stimulus modalities generated significantly different genital arousal profiles for sex offenders of children and non-deviant males, deviance differentials calculated from the VR modality allowed for significantly higher classification accuracy. Performing receiver operating characteristic analyses further assessed discriminant potential. Auditory modality yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (SE = 0.059) while CGC in VR yielded an AUC of 0.90 (SE = 0.052). Overall, results suggest that the VR modality allows significantly better group classification accuracy and discriminant validity than audio stimuli, which provide empirical support for the use of this new method for PPG assessment. Additionally, the potential use of VR in interventions pertaining to self-regulation of sexual offending is addressed in conclusion. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Dinh-Williams L.,University of Montréal | Mendrek A.,University of Montréal | Mendrek A.,Bishop's University | Dumais A.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging | Year: 2014

Despite knowledge of the harmful consequences of smoking on health, tobacco users continue to smoke. Neuroimaging studies have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying this response. Regions involved in executive control and affective processing/persuasion are activated when viewing the negative value of smoking, but these systems can interact in ways that promote or hinder its impact on behavior. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine the dynamics between these systems during the processing of images designed to elicit a negative emotional response regarding tobacco smoking in a group of current smokers. Thirty chronic smokers passively viewed aversive smoking-related, aversive nonsmoking-related and neutral images presented in a block design while being scanned. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is negatively associated to activity in medial frontal, cingulate, limbic, subcortical and parietal regions in chronic smokers during the processing of aversive smoking-related material, a pattern that was significantly greater when stimuli were drug-related compared with when they were nondrug-related. Our results suggest that individuals with tobacco dependence present different patterns of functional connectivity depending on whether the aversive stimuli are smoking- or nonsmoking-related. Activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus may act to down-regulate corresponding activity in regions key to an affective and persuasive response during the processing of anti-smoking material. This mechanism may reduce the extent to which "feeling bad" brings about a change in behavior. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Institute Philippe Pinel Of Montreal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law | Year: 2013

For centuries, Anglo-Saxon common law tradition has tended to limit voluntary intoxication as a defense on both mens rea (so-called diminished capacity defenses) and insanity. A new decision by the Supreme Court of Canada has clarified for Canadian jurisdictions whether voluntary substance-induced psychosis is a mental disorder for the purposes of determining insanity. In the United States, there is still considerable variation with regard to this question in such settled-insanity cases. This article is a review of Anglo-Saxon, American, and Canadian jurisprudence with regard to intoxication defenses on both mens rea and insanity. The factual and appellate history of Bouchard-Lebrun v. R. and a discussion of the Supreme Courts reasoning and the implications for future forensic practice follow. Potential pitfalls for forensic evaluators are explored, including the lack of scientific evidence available to detect individuals who, while appearing to present with a drug-induced psychosis, prove over time to have an endogenous psychotic illness.

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