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Reck J.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | Marks F.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rodrigues R.O.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | Souza U.A.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

The larval phase of Cochliomyia hominivorax (screwworm) is an obligate parasite of vertebrate animals, particularly mammals, and widespread in South America, where it remains one of the most important parasitic diseases of domestic animals. The skin of cattle highly infested by ticks, with cutaneous lesions, exudation of tissue fluid and blood scent seems to produce the ideal environment for fly attraction. However, an association between these parasites was never investigated. The aim of this work was to verify if there is an association between Rhipicephalus microplus tick load and the occurrence of C. hominivorax myiasis in cattle, and to quantify the risk. Sixty bovine (Bos taurus taurus, Angus breed) under field conditions were observed for 24 weeks, during which weekly tick counts and examination for the presence of myiasis were performed. There was a significant association between a high tick burden (24-week mean above 50 ticks per animal) and myiasis occurrence (P = 0.0102). The calculated relative risk (RR) for C. hominivorax myiasis occurrence in cattle with high tick burden was 3.85 (CI95% = 1.23-12.13); indicating that cattle highly parasitized by R. microplus have about four times more risk of myiasis than those with a low parasite load. As far as we aware, this is the first statistically based evidence of the relationship between R. microplus parasitic load and occurrence of myiasis by C. hominivorax. This result could be useful for the design of integrated control strategies for these parasites and to provide more information for the understanding of cattle tick parasitism in cattle production. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Schneider M.C.,Pan American Health Organization | Najera P.,Pan American Health Organization | Pereira M.M.,Centro Colaborador da Organizacao Mundial da Saude | Machado G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone neglected disease that affects humans and animals, mostly in vulnerable populations. The One Health approach is a recommended strategy to identify drivers of the disease and plan for its prevention and control. In that context, the aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of human cases of leptospirosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to explore possible drivers. Additionally, it sought to provide further evidence to support interventions and to identify hypotheses for new research at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. Methodology and findings: The risk for human infection was described in relation to environmental, socioeconomic, and livestock variables. This ecological study used aggregated data by municipality (all 496). Data were extracted from secondary, publicly available sources. Thematic maps were constructed and univariate analysis performed for all variables. Negative binomial regression was used for multivariable statistical analysis of leptospirosis cases. An annual average of 428 human cases of leptospirosis was reported in the state from 2008 to 2012. The cumulative incidence in rural populations was eight times higher than in urban populations. Variables significantly associated with leptospirosis cases in the final model were: Parana/Paraiba ecoregion (RR: 2.25; CI95%: 2.03–2.49); Neossolo Litolítico soil (RR: 1.93; CI95%: 1.26–2.96); and, to a lesser extent, the production of tobacco (RR: 1.10; CI95%: 1.09–1.11) and rice (RR: 1.003; CI95%: 1.002–1.04). Conclusion: Urban cases were concentrated in the capital and rural cases in a specific ecoregion. The major drivers identified in this study were related to environmental and production processes that are permanent features of the state. This study contributes to the basic knowledge on leptospirosis distribution and drivers in the state and encourages a comprehensive approach to address the disease in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. © 2015 Schneider et al.

de Andrade C.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Oliveira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Leal J.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Almeida L.L.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting sheep and goats, related with conformational alteration of an isoform of the prion protein that leads to deposition and aggregation in the host’s central nervous system. Occurrence of the natural disease can be influenced by host genetic factors, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism of the prion protein gene. This study reports three scrapie-affected Dorper flocks located on three different farms in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze these three flocks using scrapie diagnostics, combining histology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and western blot assays. For immunohistochemistry, 192 sheep were selected and 308 sheep blood samples were taken for genotyping. A total of 22 sheep were scrapie positive by immunohistochemistry. Of these, four presented clinical signs and had scrapie immunoreactivity at the obex in western blot assays. The sheep without clinical signs were positive in lymphoid organs, such as the third eyelid and rectal mucosa. The major genotypes found on the flocks were ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR, and ARQ/VRQ for codons 136, 154, and 171. Most of the sheep were considered to be at moderate to high risk, based on risk groups for developing scrapie. Some blood samples were sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in other codons, such as 127, 142, and 143. Our data demonstrate the importance of preclinical scrapie diagnosis in Brazilian sheep, as most of the affected sheep showed no clinical signs, and emphasize the relevance of genotyping other Dorper sheep to determine the genotypic profile of the breed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Fonseca Junior A.A.,Laboratorio Nacional Agropecuario | Carmagos M.F.,Laboratorio Nacional Agropecuario | DAmbros R.M.F.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | Ciacci-Zanella J.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

Pseudorabies is a disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (PrV) and is responsible for considerable economic losses in the swine industry. The PrV has only one serotype, but based on RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) the virus was divided into four genotypes named I, II, III, IV. The classical methods for PrV genotyping usually require virus isolation, DNA purification enzyme restriction analysis and a long electrophoresis. The aim of this research was to describe a faster and more sensitive method to detect and genotype PrV based on nested-PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Twenty PrV isolates from south and southeast regions of Brazil, and the standard strain Shope were grown in PK-15 cells and submitted to PCR for glycoprotein E gene amplification. Additionally were tested 75 clinical samples (swine brain), with 25 positives for virus isolation and seroneutralization, and 50 negatives from a flock free PR with negative results in seroneutralization test. There was 100% of agreement between results of nested-PCR and virus isolation and seroneutralization and all samples detected were classified as genotype II. The nested-PCR, combined with restriction enzyme analysis, was able to detect and genotype PrV in 1-2 days with a sensitivity of 10-1,3 TCID50 mL-1. It was faster than classical methods described in the literature that require at least 7 days to be completed.

Reck J.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF | Marks F.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Guimaraes J.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Termignoni C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Martins J.R.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor IPVDF
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2013

Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the " mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

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