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PubMed | Grande Rio University, Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor and Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas
Type: | Journal: Medical hypotheses | Year: 2016

An imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been described to influence the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute bronchiolitis and the severity of infection. Th2-driven response has been well described under first RSV vaccine (formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens) and replicated in some conditions for RSV-infected mice, in which a Th2-dependent lung eosinophilia increases illness severity, accompanied of tissue damage. Currently, several prototypes of RSV vaccine are being tested, but there is no vaccine available so far. The advance of bioinformatics can help to solve this issue. Systems biology approaches based on network topological analysis may help to identify new genes in order to direct Th1 immune response during RSV challenge. For this purpose, network centrality analyses from high-throughput experiments were performed in order to select major genes enrolled in each T-helper immune response. Thus, genes termed Hub (B) and bottlenecks (H), which control the flow of biological information (Th1 or Th2 immune response, in this case) within the network, would be identified. As these genes possess high potential to promote Th1 immune response, they could be cloned under regulation of specific promoters in a plasmid, which will be available as a gene-transfer adjunctive to vaccines. Th1 immune response potentiated by our strategy may contribute to accelerate Th1/Th2 shift from neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against RSV infection and reduce lung damage.

PubMed | Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor, Federal University of Viçosa and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2016

Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil.

Tirloni L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tirloni L.,Texas A&M University | Reck J.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor | Terra R.M.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. © 2014 Tirloni et al.

Grisi L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Leite R.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Martins J.R.S.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor | de Barros A.T.M.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | And 5 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2014

The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers.

PubMed | Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Catarina State University and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2016

The objective of this paper was to evaluate NTPDase and 5-nucleotidase activities in platelets of bovine with and without spleen and infected by Anaplasma marginale. Our results demonstrate that infection along with splenectomy is able of inducing a profile of cellular protection, which showed an increase in the degradation of the nucleotides ATP and ADP by NTPDase, in addition to AMP by 5nucleotidase to form the nucleoside adenosine in platelets, i.e., the enzymatic activities of platelets were increased in splenectomized animals when compared to non-splenectomized group. It notes that adenosine is a molecule with anti-inflammatory function. But this profile is related to a deficiency in immune signaling triggered by nucleotide ATP, which may be related to the increase in bacteremia and disability in combating the parasite in splenectomized host.

Barbieri N.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tejkowski T.M.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor | De Oliveira A.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Brito B.G.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor | Horn F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Extraintestinal infections by avian pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (APEC) are commonly reported in poultry, but there is little information on infections by APEC in other bird species. Here we report on the characterization of extraintestinal E. coli isolated from a domesticated peacock, from the south of Brazil, that died of colisepticemia. Necropsy examination revealed congested liver, hypertrophied kidneys, peritonitis, severe typhlitis suggestive of coligranuloma, pneumonia, and airsacculitistypical signs of colisepticemia. The isolates from lungs, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, and bone marrow all harbored the same virulence-associated factors (iucD, colV, iss, mat, fimC, ompA, traT crl, csgA vgrG, and hcp), yielded the same band pattern in amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and were allocated to the Escherichia coli Reference Collection group B1. The isolates were resistant to bacitracin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, but displayed slight differences in their resistance to other antimicrobials. The isolates also differed in their virulence in 1-day-old chickens, but none displayed high virulence in vivo. We conclude that the peacock died of colisepticemia after it was infected with an extraintestinal E. coli strain of low virulence that nevertheless harbored virulence factors generally associated with APEC. This study represents the first characterization of an APEC isolated from a nonpoultry bird species. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

PubMed | Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016

Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Based on the 5 untranslated region (UTR) sequence, BVDV-1 can be divided into at least 17 subtypes (1a though 1q). BVDV-1i is an uncommon subtype that has been reported in the United Kingdom and Uruguay. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first subtype 1i BVDV-1 (strain ACM/BR/2016) isolated from cattle in southern Brazil. The genome is 12,231 nt in length and contains a single ORF that encodes a polyprotein of 3,896 amino acids, flanked by 5 and 3UTRs of 325 and 220 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic inferences based on the whole genome, the 5UTR, and the N

PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay, Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

In the last decades, significant efforts have been dedicated to the search for novel vaccine adjuvants. In this regard, saponins and its formulations as immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) have shown to be capable of stimulating potent humoral and cellular immune responses, enhanced cytokine production and activation of cytotoxic T cells. The immunological activity of ISCOMs formulated with a saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis (QB-90 fraction) as an alternative to classical ISCOMs based on Quil A() (IQA) is presented here. The ISCOMs prepared with QB-90, named IQB-90, typically consist of 40-50 nm, spherical, cage-like particles, built up by QB-90, cholesterol, phospholipids and antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). These nanoparticles were efficiently uptaken in vitro by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Subcutaneously inoculated IQB-90 induced strong serum antibody responses encompassing specific IgG1 and IgG2a, robust DTH reactions, significant T cell proliferation and increases in Th1 (IFN- and IL-2) cytokine responses. Intranasally delivered IQB-90 elicited serum IgG and IgG1, and mucosal IgA responses at distal systemic sites (nasal passages, large intestine and vaginal lumen). These results indicate that IQB-90 is a promising alternative to classic ISCOMs as vaccine adjuvants, capable of enhancing humoral and cellular immunity to levels comparable to those induced by ISCOMs manufactured with Quillaja saponaria saponins.

PubMed | Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2016

The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

Santos P.S.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Nascimento R.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Rodrigues L.P.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Santos F.A.A.,Federal University of Uberlandia | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Anaplasmosis, a persistent intraerythrocytic infection of cattle by Anaplasma marginale, causes severe anemia and a higher rate of abortion, resulting in significant loss to both dairy and beef industries. Clinical diagnosis is based on symptoms and confirmatory laboratory tests are required. Currently, all the diagnostic assays have been developed with whole antigens with indirect ELISA based on multiple epitopes. In a pioneer investigation we demonstrated the use of critical motifs of an epitope as biomarkers for immunosensor applications. Mimotopes of the MSP1a protein functional epitope were obtained through Phage Display after three cycles of selection of a 12-mer random peptide library against the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 15D2. Thirty-nine clones were randomly selected, sequenced, translated and aligned with the native sequence. The consensus sequence SxSSQSEASTSSQLGA was obtained, which is located in C-terminal end of the 28-aa repetitive motif of the MSP1a protein, but the alignment and sequences' variation among mimotopes allowed us to map the critical motif STSSxL within the consensus sequence. Based on these results, two peptides were chemically synthesized: one based on the critical motif (STSSQL, Am1) and the other based on the consensus sequence aligned with the native epitope (SEASTSSQLGA, Am2). Sera from 24 infected and 52 healthy animals were tested by ELISA for reactivity against Am1 and Am2, which presented sensitivities of 96% and 100%, respectively. The Am1 peptide was incorporated onto a biolectrode (graphite modified with poly-3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) and direct serum detection was demonstrated by impedance, differential pulse voltammetry, and atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical sensor system proved to be highly effective in discriminating sera from positive and negative animals. These immunosensors were highly sensitive and selective for positive IgG, contaminants did not affect measurements, and were based on a simple, fast and reproducible electrochemical system. © 2012 Santos et al.

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