Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE

Bragança Paulista, Brazil

Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE

Bragança Paulista, Brazil
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Barbosa K.V.D.C.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Knogge C.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Develey P.F.,SAVE Brazil BirdLife International Affiliate | Jenkins C.N.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2017

Small forest fragments may play a major role in fragmented areas, but there is scarce empirical data to test this hypothesis. To understand in which context birds can use small Atlantic Forest fragments, we tested the presence of 11 bird species in 30 small fragments (4–10 ha), in a range of matrices (eucalyptus-pasture), and in different landscape configurations. The results showed that landscape composition is a good predictor for presence of birds in small fragments and their use can be further associated with matrix type. Considering the number of species, and the species Chiroxiphia caudata, we found a pattern in which models that consider the matrix composition are the most plausible. Relative importance of the variables indicates that matrix is the most important single variable among the selected species (five among eight). This suggests that small fragments are effective for increasing connectivity, mainly in landscapes with a higher percentage of permeable matrix. © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Ciência Ecológica e Conservação

Araujo J.,University of Sao Paulo | Pereira A.,Butantan Institute | Nardi M.S.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Henriques D.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 10 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2011

Current knowledge of the pathogenic hantavirus indicates that wild rodents are its primary natural reservoir. Specific primers to detect the presence of viral genomes were developed using an SYBR-Green-based real-time RT-PCR protocol. One hundred sixty-four rodents native to the Atlantic Forest biome were captured in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their tissues were tested. The presence of hantavirus RNA was detected in sixteen rodents: three specimens of Akodon montensis, three of Akodon cursor, two of Necromys lasiurus, one of Juliomys sp., one of Thaptomys nigrita, five of Oligoryzomys nigripes, and one of Oryzomys sp. This SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR method for detection of hantavirus may be useful for surveying hantaviruses in Brazil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Bragagnolo C.,Federal University of Alagoas | Carvalho Lemos C.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Ladle R.J.,Federal University of Alagoas | Ladle R.J.,University of Oxford | Pellin A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2017

In the Anthropocene, governments are increasingly being forced to take action to minimize or reverse human impacts on the environment. One of the most widespread legal instruments to prevent negative impacts on the environment is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Almost all countries have an EIA system in place aimed at mitigating the diverse impacts causing by development projects. A common drawback of such systems is that they are often ineffective and time-consuming, and are therefore frequently viewed by politicians as “in the way” of development. This is the case in Brazil, where EIA has had a very limited influence on decision-making and where environment reforms (e.g. the new Forest Code) have often been strongly influenced by powerful lobbies (e.g. agribusiness groups, industry actors, etc.) and conservative legislators. Continuing this trend, the most recent political developments have seen the proposal of a series of amendments aimed at “streamlining” the Brazilian EIA system. In this viewpoint, we provide an in depth analysis of the proposed changes, highlighting the serious consequences that would accompany the weakening of environmental licensing and EIA legislation in Brazil. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Ometto T.,University of Sao Paulo | Durigon E.L.,University of Sao Paulo | de Araujo J.,University of Sao Paulo | Aprelon R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 25 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen that is widely distributed in North and Central America. The recent introduction in South America has focused attention on the spread of WNVacross Southern American countries. The transmission network involves mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. Methods: The serological evaluation of sera from 678 equids and 478 birds was performed using a WNV-specific blocking ELISA, and only the positive results were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs). Molecular analysis was performed on sera from992 healthy equids and on 63 macerates of brains from equids that died of encephalitis and had previously tested negative for other pathogens. We also tested swabs from 928 birds. The samples analysed were collected in different biomes of Brazil. Results:We identified WNVantibodies by ELISA in thirteen equids and five birds, and PRNT90 confirmedWNVpositivity in four equid samples collected in 2009 in an area between the Amazon and the Pantanal. None of the ELISA positive bird samples were confirmed by PRNT90, and all samples tested by RT-PCR were negative. Conclusion: WNV circulation is confirmed by this large scale survey even in the absence of detection of clinical cases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Martins M.M.,University of Santo Amaro | Nascimento A.T.A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Nali C.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Velastin G.O.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | And 3 more authors.
Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment | Year: 2015

In social systems with high reproductive skew, the likelihood of breeding may depend on the dispersal ability of non-reproductive members. The aim of the present study was to test through microsatellite genotyping whether males and females of the cooperative breeding callitrichid primate Leontopithecus caissara disperse at similar proportions. Our results indicate that there is no sex-bias in dispersal. However, even-sexed and sex-bias dispersal reported for other callitrichid populations indicate that environmental and demographic attributes may also influence the dispersal pattern. Therefore, dispersal patterns may vary in a more complex fashion than previously thought in callitrichids. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Kluyber D.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Martins T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Desbiez A.J.L.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Amorim M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 2 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2016

The occurrence of ticks in four species of armadillos (Priodontes maximus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus) in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil is described. During the period from May 2011 to September 2015, 542 ticks of 28 wild armadillos were collected. Ticks species were identified as Amblyomma auricularium (Conil 1878), Amblyomma parvum Aragão, 1908 and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888. This study describes for the first time the identification of A. parvum parasitizing P. maximus, as well as A. sculptum for C. unicinctus in Brazil. The high diversity of ticks found in wild armadillos in the relatively pristine Pantanal biome, highlights the need for more studies on ticks and their interaction with wild, domestic and human species, specially their role for disease transmission and the potential risk for endangered species such as P. maximus. © Systematic & Applied Acarology Society.

Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

A total of 232 individuals representing 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks in a region of the Atlantic Forest, State of Bahia, Brazil. Thirty-eight (16.4%) of these birds representing 17 species were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks, namely, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844) (15 larvae and seven nymphs), Amblyomma nodosum (Neumann, 1899) (nine nymphs), Amblyomma calcaratum (Neumann, 1899) (five nymphs), Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (seven larvae), and Amblyomma parkeri (Fonseca and Aragão, 1952) (four larvae). Overall, 21 larvae and five nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. Among 13 A. longirostre larvae and two A. parkeri larvae, two individuals of A. longirostre (15.4%) were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This study provides some bird species found infested by A. longirostre, A. parkeri, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, or A. cajennense for the first time and expands the distribution of R. amblyommii-infected A. longirostre ticks. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Desbiez A.L.J.,Royal Zoological Society of Scotland RZSS | Desbiez A.L.J.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Kluyber D.,Royal Zoological Society of Scotland RZSS | Kluyber D.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE
Biotropica | Year: 2013

Through their excavations, giant armadillos (Priodontes maximus) alter their physical surroundings and create new habitats, which influence resources for at least 24 other species of vertebrates in the Brazilian Pantanal. The role of this poorly known species as an ecosystem engineer may be of high value to the community of vertebrates. © 2013 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation Inc.

Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Jenkins C.N.,North Carolina State University | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Habitat loss and modifications affect biodiversity, potentially contributing to outbreaks of infectious diseases. We evaluated if the patch sizeinfragmented areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil influences the diversity of forest birds and consequently the prevalence of ticks on birds and the rickettsial infection of these ticks. During 2 years, we collected ticks from birds in 12 sites: four small forest patches (80-140 ha), four large ones (480-1,850 ha), and four forest control areas within the much larger Morro do Diabo State Park (~36,000 ha). A total of 1,725 birds were captured (81 species, 24 families), from which 223 birds were infested by 2,339 ticks of the genus Amblyomma, mostly by the species A. nodosum. Bird diversity and richness were higher in larger than smaller forest fragments. The prevalence of ticks on birds was inversely correlated with bird diversity and richness. Among 174 A. nodosum tested for rickettsial infection by polymerase chain reaction, 51 were found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii or Rickettsia parkeri. However, tick infection rates by Rickettsia spp. were not statistically different between forest patch sizes. The higher prevalence of ticks on birds in degraded patches might be caused by a dominance of a few generalist bird species in small patches, allowing an easier transmission of parasites among individuals. It could also be related to more favorable microclimatic conditions for the free-living stages of A. nodosum in smaller forest fragments.The higher burden of ticks on birds in smaller forest fragments is an important secondary effect of habitat fragmentation, possibly increasing the likelihood of Rickettsia contagion. © 2011 International Association for Ecology and Health.

Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds in a region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon and evaluate the rickettsial infection of these ticks. Wild birds captured by mist nets were examined for the presence of ticks, which were collected and identified to species by morphology or molecular methods. In addition, part of these ticks was individually tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Among 331 captured birds, representing 56 species, 133 individuals (40.2%) from 34 species were found infested by 443 ticks, being Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) the most common (103 larvae, 12 nymphs), followed by Amblyomma humerale Koch (15 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma geayi Neumann (seven larvae, one nymph), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (one larva, four nymphs), Amblyomma coelebs Neumann (two larvae), and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (one larva, two nymphs). Other 285 larvae and 7 nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. The species A. humerale and A. geayi are recorded for first time parasitizing birds in the Neotropical region. Among 67 A. longirostre and 7 A. geayi, 38 (56.7%) and 4 (57.1%), respectively, were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. In spite of R. amblyommii being not currently recognized as human or animal pathogen, there has been serological evidence for human and canine infection by this agent in the USA and in the Brazilian western Amazon. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

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