Time filter

Source Type

Goncalves J.L.D.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Alvares C.A.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Higa A.R.,Federal University of Paraná | Silva L.D.,University of Sao Paulo | And 14 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Organized forestry in Brazil began in the late 1960s, stimulated by a government policy which subsidized afforestation programs from 1967 to 1989 to develop an internationally-competitive wood-based industry, managed by the private sector. Currently, planted forests in Brazil total about 6.9million ha, from which 4.9million ha is planted with eucalypt (around 25% of world plantation), 1.6million ha with pine, and 0.42Mha with other species. Roundwood consumption of forest plantations totaled 170.1millionm3 in 2011, eucalypt plantation accounted for 80.6% of this total.Most eucalypt plantations are managed in short rotations (6-8years) and are established in regions with water, nutritional and frost stresses of low to high degrees. The mean annual increment is 40m3ha-1year-1 roundwood, ranging from 25 to 60m3ha-1year-1 depending on the level of environmental stress. Improving natural resources use efficiency by breeding and matching genotypes to sites and using appropriate site management practices is a key challenge to sustain or increase productivity.The wide range of eucalypt species and hybrids with different climatic and edaphic suitability associated with the easy propagation by seeds and cloning allow the adaptation of plantations to various tropical and subtropical regions in Brazil. The possibility of using eucalypt wood in a range of purposes has led large and small enterprises to establish eucalypt forests for multiple uses. The desirable characteristics in association with the accumulated knowledge on eucalypt silviculture encourage the use of this genus in most plantations. The most important factors in the selective process for a genotype are wood characteristics, productivity level, susceptibility to pests and diseases, drought tolerance, especially in tropical regions (frost free), and frost tolerance in subtropical regions (mostly without water deficit). In regions with pronounced seasonality and moderate to long drought periods, the planting of hybrid genotypes predominates, propagated by cloning. Under subtropical conditions, the planting of single species predominates, propagated by seed. Clonal plantations with interspecific hybrids have been fundamental for eucalypt adaptation in regions under water and nutritional stresses. Given the rapid advances in eucalypt breeding, regarding adaptation to water stress and resistance to diseases and pests, and the adoption of clonal propagation techniques, genotypes are rapidly becoming obsolete and are replaced by more productive ones after harvesting. Thus, the replanting of crops has become a common procedure after the second half of the 1990s in Brazil.This paper describes the basic requirements for integrating genetic and silvicultural strategies to minimize abiotic and biotic constraints in eucalypt plantations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zanuncio J.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Lemes P.G.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Antunes L.R.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Maia J.L.S.,Duratex SA | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2016

The recommendations accompanying pesticide derogations from the FSC are not efficient for the management of leaf-cutting ants and termites in certified forest plantations in Brazil compared with chemical control using insecticides. FSC recommendations ignore the biological and ecological features of pests and forest plantations in Brazil when they set global rules for forest certification. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Silva P.H.M.D.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Sebbenn A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Sebbenn A.M.,São Paulo State University | Grattapaglia D.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Grattapaglia D.,Graduate Program In Genomic Science Biotechnology And University Cato Lica Of Brasi Lia
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

We investigated the rate of pollen-mediated flow and realized reproductive success at increasing distances from the source, across fragmented clonal stands of hybrid eucalypts in Brazil by parentage analysis of grown out seedlings using genetic data at 15 microsatellite markers. Two study areas were employed: a pollen donor area composed of a clonal stand of a single pollen donor clone (PD) and a pollen sink (PS) area composed of a mixed clonal stand of two other clones (PS1 and PS2). In the pollen sink area four plots with 30 trees each, located at 25, 200, 400 and 550. m from the PD were established as sink islands. Before flowering, the entire clonal stands of clones PS1 and PS2, with exception of the sink islands were clear cut. Seeds were harvested from five randomly sampled trees in each sink island and the paternity of 15 seedlings per tree, 75 seedlings per island totaling a sample of 300 seedlings, was determined with PD as the alleged father. The self-pollination rate in the sink islands varied from zero to 24%. Paternity assignment to the PD was highest in the island at 25. m (17.3%) and rapidly decreased to 4.0% at 200. m and 2.7% at 550. m, suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance, while revealing a large pollen contribution from unaccounted sources across all islands. Our results in a fragmented clonal site agree with previous estimates of general pollen movement in eucalypt seed orchards, showing that pollination will take place by and large at relatively short distances of less than 200. m, consistent with the expected range of flight of pollinator bees. Nevertheless the exponential distribution observed also indicates that low levels of pollination success are to be expected over longer distances. Our data provide useful guidelines regarding the distance at which seed orchards should be established away from potentially large pollen pressure of clonal stands to minimize unwanted pollen introgression. Furthermore, our results on dispersal rate and distance of pollen have direct implications on gene containment strategies and modeling studies, as pollen-mediated gene flow is one of the key determinants of the potential ecological and biosafety impacts of prospective transgenic eucalypts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


da Silva P.H.M.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Sebbenn A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Sebbenn A.M.,São Paulo State University | Grattapaglia D.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Grattapaglia D.,Catholic University of Brasília
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

We investigated the rate of pollen-mediated flow and realized reproductive success at increasing distances from the source, across fragmented clonal stands of hybrid eucalypts in Brazil by parentage analysis of grown out seedlings using genetic data at 15 microsatellite markers. Two study areas were employed: a pollen donor area composed of a clonal stand of a single pollen donor clone (PD) and a pollen sink (PS) area composed of a mixed clonal stand of two other clones (PS1 and PS2). In the pollen sink area four plots with 30 trees each, located at 25, 200, 400 and 550. m from the PD were established as sink islands. Before flowering, the entire clonal stands of clones PS1 and PS2, with exception of the sink islands were clear cut. Seeds were harvested from five randomly sampled trees in each sink island and the paternity of 15 seedlings per tree, 75 seedlings per island totaling a sample of 300 seedlings, was determined with PD as the alleged father. The self-pollination rate in the sink islands varied from zero to 24%. Paternity assignment to the PD was highest in the island at 25. m (17.3%) and rapidly decreased to 4.0% at 200. m and 2.7% at 550. m, suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance, while revealing a large pollen contribution from unaccounted sources across all islands. Our results in a fragmented clonal site agree with previous estimates of general pollen movement in eucalypt seed orchards, showing that pollination will take place by and large at relatively short distances of less than 200. m, consistent with the expected range of flight of pollinator bees. Nevertheless the exponential distribution observed also indicates that low levels of pollination success are to be expected over longer distances. Our data provide useful guidelines regarding the distance at which seed orchards should be established away from potentially large pollen pressure of clonal stands to minimize unwanted pollen introgression. Furthermore, our results on dispersal rate and distance of pollen have direct implications on gene containment strategies and modeling studies, as pollen-mediated gene flow is one of the key determinants of the potential ecological and biosafety impacts of prospective transgenic eucalypts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Silva P.H.M.D.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Silva P.H.M.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Poggiani F.,University of Sao Paulo | Libardi P.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalves A.N.,University of Sao Paulo
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

The sustainability of plantation forests requires the consideration of environmental and economic factors. Fertilization is an important practice in eucalypt plantations that should be adjusted to provide high productivity at the lowest cost without negatively affecting the environment. Eucalypt plantations are expanding worldwide, mainly because of the growing demand for wood and the high potential biomass production. Many field experiments have shown that using large amounts of fertilizer increases tree growth. However, the excessive or inappropriate application of fertilizer can cause nutrient leaching and the loss of the fertilizer. In this study, we evaluated the effect of increasing the fertilizer doses on the early growth and nutrient cycling in eucalypt plantations. Moreover, the amount of N and K leached after the application of split vs. single applications of N and K fertilizers after planting were quantified. A eucalypt plantation with a randomized block design was established in southern Brazil, consisting of six treatments and five blocks. The split application include the following five treatments of N and K fertilizers after planting: T1=control (without fertilizer), T2=40kgha-1 N; 16kgha-1 P; 53kgha-1 K (literature recommendation), T3=twofold the dose in T2 (commercial application used by forest companies), T4=threefold the dose in T2, T5=fourfold the dose in T2 (highest dose), and one treatment (T6) where the N and K fertilizers after planting amount in T3 was with a single application added at age 3months. At harvest, the export of nutrients was greater than the amounts added by a commercial mineral fertilization only for N. The eucalypt trees responded positively to increasing the fertilization rates, especially during the first year after planting. The highest dose of fertilizer led to the production of 57Mgha-1 of biomass (at age 24months), 48% higher than in the control treatment. However, the effect of the highest dose was more evident the first year after planting. The enhancement in biomass production decreased in the second year. The application of fertilizer also resulted in a large nutrient transfer to the soil through the leaf litter. The eucalypt trees receiving the highest dose of fertilizer transferred 50kgN, 20kgK and 80kg Ca ha-1 to the soil over the second year after planting, whereas only 25kgN, 6.5kgK and 47kg Ca ha-1 was returned to the soil by the control-treated trees in the same period. At age 24months, there were no significant differences between the T3 and T6 regarding productivity and nutritional status. Splitting the application of the N and K fertilizers after planting reduced the amounts N-NO3- leached at a depth of 0.9m by 3.0kgha-1 (T3=5.6kg and T6=8.6kg) and the amount of K+ by 31.7kgha-1 (T3=8.3kg and T6=40kg) over the first 2years after planting. Our results suggest that the number of N and K fertilizer applications can be reduced after planting in commercial plantations established on deep tropical soils without negatively affecting on productivity and limited losses by deep drainage. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Silva P.H.M.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Silva P.H.M.,São Paulo State University | Miranda A.C.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Miranda A.C.,São Paulo State University | And 7 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

In Brazil, Eucalyptus grandis is a key species for wood production. However, some genotypes are susceptible to rust (Puccinia psidii), mainly in São Paulo State, where climatic conditions are favorable for its development. Rust represents a high economic risk to forest companies because of the high potential of damage to commercial eucalypt plantations. The aims of the present study were (i) to select progenies of E. grandis for stability and adaptability regarding resistance to rust at different locations; (ii) compare the selections under these different climatic conditions; and (iii) compare rust severity in the field with the theoretical model. We observed that climatic conditions were extremely influential factors for rust development, but even under favorable conditions for disease development, we found rust-resistant progenies. In sites unfavorable for rust development, we detected highly susceptible progenies. We found significant correlation among the genetic material, environmental conditions and disease symptoms, however, we observed a simple genotype-environmental interaction and significant genetic variability among the progenies. The average heritability was high among the progenies in all sites, indicating substantial genetic control for rust resistance. We also observed a good relationship between rust severity in the field and the theoretical model that considered annual average temperature and leaf wetness. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Da Silva P.H.M.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Poggiani F.,University of Sao Paulo | Sebbenn A.M.,Instituto Florestal Of Sao Paulo If | Mori E.S.,São Paulo State University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

Some Eucalyptus species are widely used as a plantation crop in tropical and subtropical regions. One reason for this is the diversity of end uses, but the main reason is the high level of wood production obtained from commercial plantings. With the advancement of biotechnology it will be possible to expand the geographical area in which eucalypts can be used as commercial plantation crops, especially in regions with current climatic restrictions. Despite the popularity of eucalypts and their increasing range, questions still exist, in both traditional planting areas and in the new regions: Can eucalypts invade areas of native vegetation, causing damage to natural ecosystems biodiversity?The objective of this study it was to assess whether eucalypts can invade native vegetation fragments in proximity to commercial stands, and what factors promote this invasive growth. Thus, three experiments were established in forest fragments located in three different regions of Brazil. Each experiment was composed of 40 plots (1m 2 each one), 20 plots located at the border between the forest fragment and eucalypts plantation, and 20 plots in the interior of the forest fragments. In each experimental site, the plots were paired by two soil exposure conditions, 10 plots in natural conditions and 10 plots with soil exposure (no plant and no litter). During the rainy season, 2g of eucalypts seeds were sown in each plot, including Eucalyptus grandis or a hybrid of E. urophylla×E. grandis, the most common commercial eucalypt species planted in the three region. At 15, 30, 45, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after sowing, we assessed the number of seedlings of eucalypts and the number of seedlings of native species resulting from natural regeneration. Fifteen days after sowing, the greatest number of eucalypts seedlings (37m -2) was observed in the plots with lower luminosity and exposed soil. Also, for native species, it was observed that exposed soil improved natural germination reaching the highest number of 163 seedlings per square meter. Site and soil exposure were the factors that have the greatest influence on seed germination of both eucalypt and native species. However, 270 days after sowing, eucalypt seedlings were not observed at any of the three experimental sites. The result shows the inability of eucalypts to adapt to condition outside of their natural range. However, native species demonstrated their strong capacity for natural regeneration in forest fragments under the same conditions where eucalypts were seeded. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Miranda A.C.,São Paulo State University | Miranda A.C.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | de Moraes M.L.T.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | de Moraes M.L.T.,São Paulo State University | And 8 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

The climates of the central and southern regions of São Paulo state in Brazil favor pathogens such as Puccinia psidii Winter, which causes a common and severe disease in Eucalyptus plantations under 2 years old. We studied genetic parameters including genotype by environment interaction (G × E) of resistance to P. psidii rust in Eucalyptus grandis at nine sites in São Paulo State. Open-pollinated progeny from ten 'provenances' were established in a randomized complete block design; at individual sites there were from 134 to 160 progenies, from four to eight blocks, and five to six trees per plot. Significant provenance and progeny(provenance) differences were detected, as was G × E involving progeny(provenance). However, the G × E involved little if any rank changes, indicating that selection can be done efficiently at a single site, if the disease level is sufficient. The estimated coefficient of genetic variation among the progeny within provenances CVg was high and variable among the sites (ranging from 11 % to 36. 7 %), demonstrating different expression of genetic variability among the sites. The estimated heritability at the individual-tree level h2 and within a plot hw 2 ranged from low to intermediate (ranging from 0. 04 to 0. 46) and was high at the progeny-mean level hf 2 (ranging from 0. 30 to 0. 86). Our study shows good prospects of controlling this disease by selection among and within progenies in a single site. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Righi C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Campoe O.C.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF | Bernardes M.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Lunz A.M.P.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2013

The coffee leaf-miner (CLM) (Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Mèneville; Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), the main pest of coffee plants, occurs widely throughout the Neotropics where it has a significant, negative economic and quantitative impact on coffee production. This study was conducted in a rubber tree/coffee plant interface that was influenced by the trees to a varying degrees depending on the location of the coffee plants, i.e. from beneath the rubber trees, extending through a range of distances from the edge of the tree plantation to end in a coffee monocrop field. The most severe damage inflicted on coffee plants by the CLM (number of mined leaves) from April, which marks the start of the water deficit period, until September 2003 was in the zone close to the rubber trees, whereas the damage inflicted on plants in the monocropped field was comparable to that on coffee plants grown directly beneath the rubber trees, which received about 25-40 % of the available irradiance (Ir-available irradiation at a certain position divided by the irradiation received in full sunlight, i.e. in the monocrop). From May until July damage caused by the CLM nearly doubled in each month. In midwinter (July), the damage decreased perceptibly from the tree edge toward the open field. From September onward, with the rising air temperatures CLM damage in the coffee monocrop started to increase. Based on these results, we conclude that coffee plants grown in the full sun incurred the most damage only at the end of winter, with warming air temperatures. Coffee plants grown in shadier locations (25-40 % Ir) were less damaged by the CLM, although a higher proportion of their leaves were mined. The rubber trees probably acted as a shelter during the cold autumn and winter seasons, leading to greater CLM damage over a distance outside the rubber tree plantation that was about equal to the height of the trees. Future studies should attempt to relate leaf hydric potential to pest attack in field conditions. More rigorous measurements of shade conditions could improve our understanding of the relationship of this factor to CLM attack. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


De Barros Ferraz S.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Pereira M.F.,Claro | De Paula F.R.,Claro | Vettorazzi C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Alvares C.A.,Institute Pesquisas E Estudos Florestais IPEF
Scientia Forestalis/Forest Sciences | Year: 2013

In São Paulo state, deforestation and agriculture activities are increasing soil losses processes, especially in areas of susceptible soils where soil conservation practices are not adopted. Environmental adequacy at property level regarding Permanent Protection Areas and Legal Reserves is considered a potential factor for reducing soil losses and it was based on this fact that we assessed soil losses of different scenarios of environmental adequacy. Simulations of erosive processes were carried out in 15 catchments of the Corumbataí river basin, with different forest restoration scenarios, as well as the current situation of land use/ land cover. The scenarios include reforestation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA); the reforestation hydrological sensitive areas; and two scenarios, the Legal Reserve installation in 20% of each catchment, being one of them for most critical areas in terms of erosion and the other at random. It was observed that the establishment of PPA and the reforestation of hydrological sensitive areas (HSA), offered a small contribution to the control of the erosive process, resulting in a reduction of 10% and 7.4%, respectively, while the legal reserve in critical areas has the significant reduction of 69.8%. The random scenario, in turn, resulted in a reduction of 21.4% of erosion. Results show that reforestation can reduce soil losses, but previous studies of land prioritization and planning could significantly increase its efficiency.

Loading Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF collaborators
Loading Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais IPEF collaborators