Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais

São Paulo, Brazil

Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais

São Paulo, Brazil
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Alvares C.A.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | de Moraes Goncalves J.L.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silva C.R.,Fibria Celulose SA | Franciscatte W.,Fibria Celulose SA
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2011

Capão Bonito forest soils, São Paulo state, Brazil, have been used for forestry purposes for almost one century. Detailed knowledge about the distribution of soil attributes over the landscape is of fundamental importance for proper management of natural resources. The purpose of this study was to identify the variability and spatial dependence of chemical and physical attributes of Capão Bonito forest soils. A large soil database of regional land was raised and organized. Most of the selected variables were close to the lognormal frequency range. Soil texture presented a higher range in the A horizon, and the nugget effect and sill were greater in the B horizon. These differences are attributed to the parent material of the region (Itararé Geologic Formation), which presents uneven distribution of sediments. Chemical attributes related to soil fertility presented a higher spatial dependence range in the B horizon, probably as a result of more intensive management and erosion history of the superficial soil layer. Maps for some attributes were interpolated. These had specific areas of occurrence and a wide distribution along the perimeter of the Capão Bonito District Forest, allowing a future site-specific soil management.


Spoladore J.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | Mansano V.F.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | Freitas L.C.D.D.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | Sebbenn A.M.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | And 2 more authors.
Applications in Plant Sciences | Year: 2016

Premise of the study: Development and characterization of a set of DNA microsatellite markers for Swartzia glazioviana (Fabaceae), a naturally rare and threatened tree species, were carried out to investigate its conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Through an enriched genomic library procedure, 10 DNA microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the species. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.776 (0.424-0.894). Cross-species amplifications of these loci were successfully tested for six congener taxa (S. apetala var. apetala. S. flaemingii, S. langsdorffii, S. macrostachya, S. myrtifolia var. elegans, and S. simplex var. continentalis). Conclusions: The 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed are quite informative and will provide a valuable resource to study the population and conservation genetics of S. glazioviana and other Swartzia species. © 2016 Spoladore et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America.


Smethurst P.J.,CSIRO | Goncalves J.L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Pulito A.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Gomes S.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

The Soil Nitrogen Availability Predictor (SNAP) model predicts daily and annual rates of net N mineralization (NNM) based on daily weather measurements, daily predictions of soil water and soil temperature, and on temperature and moisture modifiers obtained during aerobic incubation (basal rate). The model was based on in situ measurements of NNM in Australian soils under temperate climate. The purpose of this study was to assess this model for use in tropical soils under eucalyptus plantations in São Paulo State, Brazil. Based on field incubations for one month in three, NNM rates were measured at 11 sites (0-20 cm layer) for 21 months. The basal rate was determined in in situ incubations during moist and warm periods (January to March). Annual rates of 150-350 kg ha-1 yr-1 NNM predicted by the SNAP model were reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.84). In other periods, at lower moisture and temperature, NNM rates were overestimated. Therefore, if used carefully, the model can provide adequate predictions of annual NNM and may be useful in practical applications. For NNM predictions for shorter periods than a year or under suboptimal incubation conditions, the temperature and moisture modifiers need to be recalibrated for tropical conditions. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Sixel R.M.M.,Sao Pedro | Arthur J.C.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | Goncalves J.L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Alvares C.A.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

The impact of intensive management practices on the sustainability of forest production depends on maintenance of soil fertility. The contribution of forest residues and nutrient cycling in this process is critical. A 16-year-old stand of Pinus taeda in a Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico (Humic Endo-lithic Dystrudept) in the south of Brazil was studied. A total of 10 trees were sampled distributed in five diameter classes according to diameter at breast height. The biomass of the needles, twigs, bark, wood, and roots was measured for each tree. In addition to plant biomass, accumulated plant litter was sampled, and soil samples were taken at three increments based on sampling depth: 0.00-0.20, 0.20-0.40, 0.40-0.60, 0.60-1.00, 1.00-1.40, 1.40-1.80, and 1.80-1.90 m. The quantity and concentration of nutrients, as well as mineralogical characteristics, were determined for each soil sample. Three scenarios of harvesting intensities were simulated: wood removal (A), wood and bark removal (B), and wood + bark + canopy removal (C). The sum of all biomass components was 313 Mg ha-1. The stocks of nutrients in the trees decreased in the order N>Ca>K>S>Mg>P. The mineralogy of the Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico showed the predominance of quartz sand and small traces of vermiculite in the silt fraction. Clay is the main fraction that contributes to soil weathering, due to the transformation of illite-vermiculite, releasing K. The depletion of nutrients from the soil biomass was in the order: P>S>N>K>Mg> Ca. Phosphorus and S were the most limiting in scenario A due to their low stock in the soil. In scenario B, the number of forest rotations was limited by N, K, and S. Scenario C showed the greatest reduction in productivity, allowing only two rotations before P limitation. It is therefore apparent that there may be a difference of up to 30 years in the capacity of the soil to support a scenario such as A, with a low nutrient removal, compared to scenario C, with a high nutrient removal. Hence, the effect of different harvesting intensities on nutrient availability may jeopardize the sustainability of P. taeda in the short-term. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Silva P.H.M.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | Silva P.H.M.,São Paulo State University | Campoe O.C.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais | Campoe O.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2016

We assessed growth and physiological responses of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species to water limitation aiming to widen possibilities for plantations in dry climatic conditions. We selected 16 taxa: 4 Corymbia and 12 Eucalyptus species from the Subgenera Symphyomyrtus. Seedlings were evaluated from 100 to 170 days after sowing. Growth and physiological traits showed significant differences among taxa and between two levels of water availability. Water limitation significantly impacted biomass production and physiological characteristics, however in different levels. Leaf area and biomass production decreased 15%-48% under water limitation among taxa. Eucalyptus moluccana, CCV 2, and VM1 (drought tolerant clone) showed the largest decrease in leaf area. Transpiration across taxa decreased 30%-57% and photosynthesis 14%-48% under water limited condition. Taxa from cold environments were less responsive in leaf area reduction under water limitation, and taxa from Exsertaria section showed lower reduction in photosynthesis (E. camaldulensis showed the lowest reduction). Responses to water limitation are related to the environment of origin. E. molucana, the only Adnataria species from a high precipitation region (>1500 mm year-1), was one of the most sensitive in reduction of biomass production, different behavior from the other Adnataria species, originated in regions with rainfall <750 mm year-1. Water limitation increased leaf-level water use efficiency by 18% on average, 8% in E. longirostrata, and 28% in E. camaldulensis, E. brassiana, and E. crebra. Growth and physiological responses observed show the potential of different eucalypts taxa to tolerate water limited environments. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


De Niro Gazola R.,São Paulo State University | Buzetti S.,São Paulo State University | Filho M.C.M.T.,São Paulo State University | Dinalli R.P.,São Paulo State University | And 4 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

Many eucalyptus plantations in Brazil are in areas of soil with low fertility, with little phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) availability and with low organic matter (OM) content, resulting in a low supply of nutrients to plants, directly reflected in reduced yield. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), P and K fertilization on the growth of eucalyptus plants, with the aim of achieving nutritional balance and high yield. The experiment was conducted on Renascença Farm, an agricultural property administered by Cargill Agrícola S.A., located in the city of Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with ten treatments and five replicates. The treatments were composed of doses of N (0, 70, 105 and 140 kg ha-1), doses of P (0, 40, 70 and 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and doses of K (0, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1 of K2O). The doses of N and K were applied at planting and as top dressing, and the doses of P were applied only at planting. The diameter at breast height (DBH), plant height and timber volume with bark were assessed, and the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves were determined. DBH and volume were positively affected by N fertilization, and eucalyptus growth in DBH, height and volume increased with P and K fertilization. The maximum yield of eucalyptus at 21 months of age was obtained with the application of 71 kg ha-1 of N, 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 125 kg ha-1 of K2O. The concentrations of macronutrients were adequate even in the absence of the application of N, P and K. With increasing doses of K, there was an increase in leaf concentrations of K and a decrease in those of calcium and magnesium.


De Souza Celestrino T.,São Paulo State University | Buzetti S.,São Paulo State University | Filho M.C.M.T.,São Paulo State University | De Niro Gazola R.,São Paulo State University | And 4 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

Cerrado soils have low boron (B) content, making supplementation of this element through fertilization via soil and/or leaf is a common practice. It is therefore important to establish the best mode of application and source of B for the proper development of eucalyptus. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of B sources with high and low solubility on eucalyptus cultivation and to examine the effect of foliar application of the micronutrient. The experiment was conducted in an area located at 20o 34' S latitude and 51o 50' W longitude with an altitude of 305 m during the period from January 2012 to February 2014. The experiment was set up using a randomised complete block design with six treatments and five replications, in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, consisting of 0 kg ha-1 of B, 1 kg ha-1 of B using boric acid as a source (high solubility, 17% B) or 1 kg ha-1 of B using borogran as a source (low solubility, 10% B), applied to the planting furrow, with or without foliar application of 0.5% boric acid in a solution with a volume of 250 L ha-1. Except for the case of foliar B application, there was an increase in plant height in treatments that received the micronutrient at planting, which differed significantly from the control. However, both sources, independent of solubility, exhibited similar results. The two foliar B applications were sufficient to cause an increase in plant height when compared to treatments without B application at planting, at 21 months. At 24 months after planting, an increase in leaf B was observed in treatments with foliar application. However, this did not improve growth, diameter at breast height (DBH) or timber volume of the eucalyptus clone. Both the application of B at planting (independent of the source used) and the foliar application of the element were sufficient to reduce the symptoms of B deficiency. With respect to the sources used at planting, at a dose of 1 kg ha-1 of B, both sources produced similar results for plant height, DBH and timber volume.

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