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PubMed | Secretaria de Vigilancia em Saude, Laboratorio Of Fisiologia E Controle Of Artropodes Vetores, Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA, Programa de Computacao Cientifica and 2 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation.The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km(2) areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps.The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small.All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use.


Lynch Alfaro J.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Boubli J.P.,University of Salford | Boubli J.P.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Paim F.P.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The RondÔnia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6. Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S. macrodon. We discuss evidence for taxonomic revision within the genus Saimiri, and the need for future work using nuclear markers. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Federal University of Rondônia, Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua, University of California at Los Angeles, Federal University of Amazonas and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2014

The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondnia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the Young Amazon hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S. macrodon. We discuss evidence for taxonomic revision within the genus Saimiri, and the need for future work using nuclear markers.


Lima J.R.,Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA | Galatti U.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi | Lima C.J.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi | Faveri S.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Biotropica | Year: 2015

River damming has created fragmented landscapes in parts of the Amazon basin. The resulting decrease in forest area could directly affect amphibian species if large areas of habitat are required to guarantee the presence of specific types of breeding sites. Here, we describe the anuran assemblages on islands created by damming of the Tocantins River twenty years ago in the eastern Amazon basin. We surveyed 10 undisturbed islands varying in size from 3 to 2140 ha and located at distances of up to 6.7 km from the margin of the reservoir. We identified 32 frog species, of which 15, 14, and 3 have aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial development, respectively. The number of frog species increased significantly with island area but was not affected by island distance from the margin. Species with aquatic or semiaquatic development tended to be absent from the smaller islands, regardless of the degree of isolation from the mainland. These findings emphasize the need to preserve specific microhabitats on smaller land-bridge islands to maintain amphibian diversity in reservoir environments. © 2015 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.


de Oliveira C.,Secretaria do Estado da Educacao SEED | da Silva e Silva B.M.,Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA | Sader R.,São Paulo State University | Moro F.V.,São Paulo State University
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The objective of the present research was to determine the more adequated packing and temperature for storage of "carolina" seeds. The seeds were stored in paper and plastic packings and kept in 0±2; 10±2; 20±2°C and 60±5% air relative humidity (ARH) and in ambient temperature (23,4±3,3°C) and 68,7±9% ARH. Quarterly, the water seed content, germinative test and seed vigour were avaluated. During storage, the seed water content was approximately 8.9%. The plastic packing (plastic bag) and tempertature of 0°C are adequated for storage of "carolina" seeds.


Monteiro K.L.,Federal University of Lavras | de Oliveira C.,Secretaria do Estado da Educacao SEED | da Silva e Silva B.M.,Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA | Moro F.V.,São Paulo State University | de Carvalho D.A.,Federal University of Lavras
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The objective of the present work was to describe the morphology of fruit, seed and the post-seminal development of "oiti" (Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch.). The size and shape of seeds and fruits were evaluated with a digital calipter ruler and in stereo-microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fruits are drupaceous, ellipticals, monospermics, succulents, indehiscents, with non articulated peduncle, with smooth and glabrous exocarp of yellow to orange coloration; yellow, succulent and fibrous mesocarp and cream, membranaceous endocarp. The fruits dimensions are approximately 6,19cm in length, 3,30cm in width, 39,5g of fresh mass and 17,3g of dry mass. The seeds are exalbuminous, ellipticals, with smooth tegument, with brown coloration, cartaceous to coriaceous, with longitudinally visible raphe, inconspicuous micropyle and inconspicuous hilum, with thick cotyledons, elliptical and plan-convex, with cream to rose color. The embryo is minute, straight, central, with embryonic axis differentiated in plumule and hypocotyl-radicle axis. The length, width and fresh and dry mass of seeds is approximately 4,07cm, 2,18cm, 12,7g and 7,2g, respectively. The germination is criptocotyledonary hypogeal, with alternatedistichous and woolly eophylum, with paracitic stomata and two glands in the base of limb or, rare in the apex, in the abaxial face of leaf.


Codeco C.T.,Programa de Computacao Cientifica | Lima A.W.S.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia E Controle Of Artropodes Vetores | Araujo S.C.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia E Controle Of Artropodes Vetores | Lima J.B.P.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia E Controle Of Artropodes Vetores | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. © 2015 Codeço et al.


Fishes may show sexual dimorphism according to their reproductive strategies. In some species, this differentiation is already well known. However, with the findings obtained from recent studies, the number of species for which sex can be determined without dissection has increased. Thus far, the presence of external secondary sexual characteristics in Hoplias aimara, a very well-studied species, has not been reported. Traditional knowledge evidenced through riparian people observations indicated the possibility of sexual dimorphism in this species, which was studied in 2 conservation units, Sustainable Development Reserve of Iratapuru River and Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Fishes were captured, and their anal fins were examined when they were still fresh; the sex of the fishes was confirmed by dissection. The same procedure was used for formalin-fixed fishes. By assessing the shape of the anal fin in fresh or fixed fishes, it was possible to determine the sex of the fish, which was then confirmed by dissection. H. aimara shows sexual dimorphism expressed in the morphology of their anal fin. Thus, the sex of fishes deposited in collections can be identified without any dissection, thereby providing important biological information about the specimens. © 2014, Instituto Internacional de Ecologia. All rights reserved.


Silva Damasceno M.C.,Pará State University | Campos Ribeiro H.M.,Pará State University | Takiyama L.R.,Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA | Tavares de Paula M.,Pará State University
Revista Ambiente e Agua | Year: 2015

Water is essential to life on Earth and crucial for humanity, but multiple and complex human activities alter this resource. This study evaluated the physical-chemical and bacteriological water conditions of the Amazon River at the Macapa city waterfront in the State of Amapa. The study was conducted at three points in the section between the mouth of the Igarapé das Pedrinhas and the mouth of the Canal do Jandiá, considering the spatial and temporal variations in seasonal periods. Samples were collected for analysis of the following variables: turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, total phosphorus, nitrate, total solids, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliform, and total nitrogen. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the data, to include the nonparametric statistical method of Kruskal-Wallis and the coefficient of variation. The results were evaluated individually and compared with the limits established by Resolution 357/2005 of the National Council for the Environment (CONAMA) using "class 2 for fresh water” as a reference. The Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values and total phosphorus were not within the resolution threshold. The results of the Water Quality Index (WQI) indicated that during the less rainy and rainy period the water at the Macapa city waterfront was classified as "good" and "excellent", respectively, where the turbidity and BOD were predominant for the decrease in WQI during the less rainy season. It is concluded that in periods of low water flow the contribution of wastewater discharged near the water uptake station for public supply may deteriorate water quality and compromise the health of the population. © Rev. Ambient


PubMed | Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia | Year: 2014

Fishes may show sexual dimorphism according to their reproductive strategies. In some species, this differentiation is already well known. However, with the findings obtained from recent studies, the number of species for which sex can be determined without dissection has increased. Thus far, the presence of external secondary sexual characteristics in Hoplias aimara, a very well-studied species, has not been reported. Traditional knowledge evidenced through riparian people observations indicated the possibility of sexual dimorphism in this species, which was studied in 2 conservation units, Sustainable Development Reserve of Iratapuru River and Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, in the state of Amap, Brazil. Fishes were captured, and their anal fins were examined when they were still fresh; the sex of the fishes was confirmed by dissection. The same procedure was used for formalin-fixed fishes. By assessing the shape of the anal fin in fresh or fixed fishes, it was possible to determine the sex of the fish, which was then confirmed by dissection. H. aimara shows sexual dimorphism expressed in the morphology of their anal fin. Thus, the sex of fishes deposited in collections can be identified without any dissection, thereby providing important biological information about the specimens.

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Loading Institute Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa IEPA collaborators