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Porto Alegre, Brazil

Lopes R.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Grassi-Oliveira R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Almeida L.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Stein L.M.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
NeuroImmunoModulation | Year: 2012

Background: Traumatic events experienced in childhood may lead to psychiatric diseases in adult life, including major depressive disorder (MDD). It remains obscure to what extent early life stress (ELS) is associated with biologically relevant changes in MDD. Objective: We investigated both neuroendocrine and immunological correlates in recurrent MDD with ELS and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Methods: Thirty-eight female MDD patients with or without childhood trauma and 15 healthy controls took part in this study. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were assessed by radioimmunoassays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and T cell proliferation and cellular sensitivity to steroids and DHEAS were evaluated by colorimetric assays. Th1/Th2 cytokines were assessed by cytometric bead arrays. Results: MDD patients with or without previous trauma had similarly lower salivary cortisol and DHEAS in parallel with blunted T cell proliferation. PBMCs of depressives were significantly less sensitive to dexamethasone or epinephrine than those of the controls. PBMCs of MDD patients produced significantly lower interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels when compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: We found that a history of ELS did not modify the blunted neuroendocrine and immunological alterations presented by recurrent depressed patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Vargas J.E.,Grande Rio University | de Souza A.P.D.,Grande Rio University | Porto B.N.,Grande Rio University | Fazolo T.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas | And 3 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2016

An imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been described to influence the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute bronchiolitis and the severity of infection. Th2-driven response has been well described under first RSV vaccine (formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens) and replicated in some conditions for RSV-infected mice, in which a Th2-dependent lung eosinophilia increases illness severity, accompanied of tissue damage. Currently, several prototypes of RSV vaccine are being tested, but there is no vaccine available so far. The advance of bioinformatics can help to solve this issue. Systems biology approaches based on network topological analysis may help to identify new genes in order to direct Th1 immune response during RSV challenge. For this purpose, network centrality analyses from high-throughput experiments were performed in order to select major genes enrolled in each T-helper immune response. Thus, genes termed Hub (B) and bottlenecks (H), which control the flow of biological information (Th1 or Th2 immune response, in this case) within the network, would be identified. As these genes possess high potential to promote Th1 immune response, they could be cloned under regulation of specific promoters in a plasmid, which will be available as a gene-transfer adjunctive to vaccines. Th1 immune response potentiated by our strategy may contribute to accelerate Th1/Th2 shift from neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against RSV infection and reduce lung damage. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Soares M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Teixeira F.C.O.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Fontes M.,Servico de Patologia | Areas A.L.,Servico de Patologia | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

The metastatic disease is one of the main consequences of tumor progression, being responsible for most cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review intends to present and discuss data on the relationship between integrins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in health and cancer progression. Integrins are a family of cell surface transmembrane receptors, responsible for cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. Integrins' main functions include cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are cell surface molecules that play important roles as cell receptors, cofactors, and overall direct or indirect contributors to cell organization. Both molecules can act in conjunction to modulate cell behavior and affect malignancy. In this review, we will discuss the different contexts in which various integrins, such as 5, V, β1, and β3, interact with HSPGs species, such as syndecans and perlecans, affecting tissue homeostasis. © 2015 Mariana A. Soares et al. Source

De Souza A.P.D.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas | Bonorino C.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2012

The genetic alterations acquired by cancer cells are identified by diverse immune mechanisms, creating a complex network of interactions that can either favor or control tumor growth. Defects and impairments in the immune system are associated with cancer development. Compelling new evidences are also available regarding the protective value of anti-tumor adaptive immune responses, both local and systemic, developed by the host. More recently, the identification of new subsets of T helper, T cytotoxic, and dendritic cells, unraveled new forms of interactions between immune and tumor cells. The immune system is a powerful ally in the control of cancer development, metastasis and recurrence, due to two important properties that are absent in most anti-cancer treatments - specificity, and long-lasting memory. These properties are being increasingly explored in cancer therapy, from the wide use of monoclonal antibodies to the still experimental dendritic cell based therapies. Now, more than ever, the preservation as well as the recruitment of immune responses in the host constitute important approaches to be applied in cancer therapy. Source

Roncada C.,Grande Rio University | Mattiello R.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas | Pitrez P.M.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas | Sarria E.E.,Institute Pesquisas Biomedicas
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2013

Objective: To identify and describe specific instruments to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents with asthma. Data source: Searches were performed in the PubMed, Ovid, and LILACS databases using different combinations of key words (MeSH terms), selecting original articles on the development of specific HRQoL questionnaires, published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, between 1990 and 2012. Data synthesis: A total of 15 instruments that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Most studies assessed reliability through internal consistency, reproducibility, and/or sensitivity to changes. Validity was assessed by comparison with healthy controls (discordant validity) or factorial analysis. Conclusions: Of the 15 instruments, three are the most frequently used: Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL-Asthma), and Disability Kids (DISABKIDS). In general, these three tools have adequate psychometric characteristics and are practical to implement, but only PAQLQ has been culturally adapted to Brazil. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Source

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