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Duarte E.C.,University of Brasilia | Garcia L.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | de Freitas L.R.S.,University of Brasilia | Mansano N.H.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2012

Homicide mortality remains a major public health problem in Brazil, especially among young adult males. The aim of this study was to assess the homicide mortality risk (HMR) among males aged 20 to 39, and its association with selected socio-demographic characteristics of the Brazilian municipalities. This is an ecologic study in which all the municipalities in Brazil were the unit of analysis. Time trends (from 1999-2002) and adjusted associations between HMR and socio- demographic characteristics of municipalities were estimated in a cross-sectional analysis for 2007-2010 in this study. Between 1999-2002 and 2007-2010, an increasing trend of mean HMR rates from 22.7 to 35.5 per 100,000 inhabitants was observed in Brazil. In 2007-2010, HMR rates were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the largest cities, with higher fertility rates, lower literacy rates, higher social inequality (as estimated by the 20/ 40 income ratio) and more-urbanized municipalities. Considering the proportion of low income population and the average per capita income, associations with HMR identified greater risks in the intermediary categories of these independent variables. Findings from this study may support the implementation of focal policies directed to more vulnerable municipalities.

Garcia L.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Freitas L.R.S.,University of Brasilia | Gawryszewski V.P.,Health Analysis and Information Unit | Duarte E.C.,University of Brasilia
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objective. To describe mortality from diseases, conditions, and injuries for which alcohol consumption is a necessary cause during the 2010-2012 triennium in Brazil. Methods. A descriptive study was conducted with data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System (SIM). The analysis included deaths whose primary cause was classified as any of the 78 codes of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) corresponding to the diseases, conditions, and injuries for which the use of alcohol is a necessary cause. Results. Deaths with alcohol consumption as a necessary cause totaled 55 380 (88.5% in men). The crude mortality rate for the triennium was 9.6/100 000 people in the overall population, 17.35/100 000 men in males, and 2.15/100 000 women in females. Higher mortality rates were observed in the 50-59 year (28.45) and 60-69 year (27.23) age groups and among people with black or brown skin color (10.15). The Northeast (11.70) and Midwest (11.04) regions exhibited higher age-adjusted mortality rates. Liver diseases were the leading cause of death (55.3%). Conclusions. Mortality from causes related to alcohol consumption is high in Brazil, especially among men, people aged 50-69 years, and residents in the Northeast and Midwest regions.

Silva M.G.,University of Vic | Dias M.M.,University of Vic | Silva S.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2014

This paper presents the analysis of the links between family farming organizations and rural development policies. The research was conducted in the municipality of Espera Feliz (MG). The results demonstrate that the adoption of family farm as an issue in public agenda was responsible for important changes in the performance of the Rural Workers Union (STR) of Espera Feliz with the adoption of collective devices used by farmers as a strategy for collective action. This organization adopted collective devices which began to be used by farmers as a strategy for collective action. It was possible to observe that these collective devices have undergone adjustments to their rules of reciprocity, constituting formalized institutions. Given the access to certain public policies, approaches with social mediators were created in order to optimize strategies developed by local organizations. This relationship, which becomes conflicting as there are divergences of collective orientations for development, can be classified as a relation of complementarity, normative domination or difficulties and tensions. In this set of relations, approximations between organizations and social mediators who work advising the farmer's organizations are built up.

Fiuza de Braganca G.G.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Daglish T.,Victoria University of Wellington
Energy Economics | Year: 2016

Electricity is a non-storable commodity frequently traded in complex markets characterized by oligopolistic structures and uniform-price auctions. Electricity prices have idiosyncratic patterns not addressed by the usual commodity pricing literature. This paper develops an electricity market model that allows for oligopoly, vertical integration, and a uniform-price auction mechanism. It derives a linear equilibrium relationship between spot prices and state variables affecting firms' costs and demand. It then applies a two-factor forward pricing model over the equilibrium spot price process, and shows that forward prices can be positively affected by spot market power. An empirical estimation of the model follows, using NZEM data. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Figueiredo M.G.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Barros A.L.M.,Fundacao Getulio Vargas FGV | Conceicao J.C.P.R.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to assess the economic return from R&D investments in the citrus sector in São Paulo state, Brazil. Brazilaccounts for 80% of the total frozen concentrate orange juice (FCOJ) traded in the international market, and São Paulo state is responsible for 98% of Brazilian FCOJ exports. The Tornqüist Index Method was used to estimate the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) for the citrus industry, in order to compare the outcomes with and without citrus R&D investments. For every 1.00 Realinvested in citrus research, there is an increase of 13.00 Reaisin the values of orange production in São Paulo state.

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