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Duarte E.C.,University of Brasilia | Garcia L.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | de Freitas L.R.S.,University of Brasilia | Mansano N.H.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2012

Homicide mortality remains a major public health problem in Brazil, especially among young adult males. The aim of this study was to assess the homicide mortality risk (HMR) among males aged 20 to 39, and its association with selected socio-demographic characteristics of the Brazilian municipalities. This is an ecologic study in which all the municipalities in Brazil were the unit of analysis. Time trends (from 1999-2002) and adjusted associations between HMR and socio- demographic characteristics of municipalities were estimated in a cross-sectional analysis for 2007-2010 in this study. Between 1999-2002 and 2007-2010, an increasing trend of mean HMR rates from 22.7 to 35.5 per 100,000 inhabitants was observed in Brazil. In 2007-2010, HMR rates were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the largest cities, with higher fertility rates, lower literacy rates, higher social inequality (as estimated by the 20/ 40 income ratio) and more-urbanized municipalities. Considering the proportion of low income population and the average per capita income, associations with HMR identified greater risks in the intermediary categories of these independent variables. Findings from this study may support the implementation of focal policies directed to more vulnerable municipalities.

Garcia L.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | De Freitas L.R.S.,University of Brasilia | Da Silva G.D.M.,University of Brasilia | Hofelmann D.A.,Federal University of Paraná
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objective. To estimate the corrected femicide rates and to describe the characteristics of these deaths in Brazil during the 2009-2011 triennium. Methods. A descriptive study was performed with data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. Femicides were defined as all female deaths classified in the Assault chapter of ICD-10 (X85-Y09). These data underwent two correction procedures: proportional redistribution of events of undetermined intent (Y10-Y34) and application of correction factors for mortality rates previously described in the literature. Results.During the period analyzed, 13 071 femicides were recorded in the Mortality Information System. After the first correction procedure, 17 167 femicides were estimated, corresponding to a death rate of 5.86 per 100 000 women. Higher femicide rates were recorded in the Northeast, Midwest and North regions of Brazil (6.93, 6.88 and 6.43 deaths per 100 000 women respectively) vs. 5.07 and 5.09 per 100 000 women in the South and Southeast respectively. Of the victims, 29.7% were between 20 and 29 years of age and 60.9% were black. Among women aged 15 years or older, 48% had schooling of not more than 8 years. Fire guns were used in 50.2% of deaths; 27.6% of deaths took place in the household; and 35.1% took place on weekends. Conclusions. Femicide death rates were high and support the need for correction to reduce underestimation. The victims were women of all age groups, ethnicities, and schooling levels. However, most victims were young, black, with low schooling, living in the Northeast, Midwest, and North of Brazil.

Sambuichi R.H.R.,State University of Santa Cruz | Sambuichi R.H.R.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Vidal D.B.,State University of Santa Cruz | Piasentin F.B.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | And 6 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

In southern Bahia, Brazil, cabrucas are the traditional agroforests in which cacao trees are planted under thinned-out native forests. To analyze the role of cabrucas in tree species conservation, we inventoried the non-cocoa trees in 1. 0 ha plots of cabruca in 16 cocoa farms and compared our results with a similar survey undertaken in the early 1960s in the same region to analyze the long term changes. We also interviewed 160 cocoa farmers to investigate their preferences for species and the main practices used in managing shade trees. The cabrucas showed high levels of tree diversity for an agroforestry system (Shannon index ranging from 2. 21 to 3. 52) and also high variation in structure and composition among the different farms. Forest specialist trees accounted for most species (63. 9%) in the survey and were among the species most preferred by the farmers, although we found evidence that some of these trees are gradually being replaced by other species. Our results indicate that cabrucas are poor substitutes for undisturbed forests in terms of tree species richness, but their presence in human-altered landscapes is of utmost importance to the conservation of forest tree species as they increase overall heterogeneity and may serve as ecological corridors, additional habitats, and buffer zones. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Garcia L.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Freitas L.R.S.,University of Brasilia | Gawryszewski V.P.,Health Analysis and Information Unit | Duarte E.C.,University of Brasilia
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objective. To describe mortality from diseases, conditions, and injuries for which alcohol consumption is a necessary cause during the 2010-2012 triennium in Brazil. Methods. A descriptive study was conducted with data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System (SIM). The analysis included deaths whose primary cause was classified as any of the 78 codes of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) corresponding to the diseases, conditions, and injuries for which the use of alcohol is a necessary cause. Results. Deaths with alcohol consumption as a necessary cause totaled 55 380 (88.5% in men). The crude mortality rate for the triennium was 9.6/100 000 people in the overall population, 17.35/100 000 men in males, and 2.15/100 000 women in females. Higher mortality rates were observed in the 50-59 year (28.45) and 60-69 year (27.23) age groups and among people with black or brown skin color (10.15). The Northeast (11.70) and Midwest (11.04) regions exhibited higher age-adjusted mortality rates. Liver diseases were the leading cause of death (55.3%). Conclusions. Mortality from causes related to alcohol consumption is high in Brazil, especially among men, people aged 50-69 years, and residents in the Northeast and Midwest regions.

Silva M.G.,University of Vic | Dias M.M.,University of Vic | Silva S.P.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2014

This paper presents the analysis of the links between family farming organizations and rural development policies. The research was conducted in the municipality of Espera Feliz (MG). The results demonstrate that the adoption of family farm as an issue in public agenda was responsible for important changes in the performance of the Rural Workers Union (STR) of Espera Feliz with the adoption of collective devices used by farmers as a strategy for collective action. This organization adopted collective devices which began to be used by farmers as a strategy for collective action. It was possible to observe that these collective devices have undergone adjustments to their rules of reciprocity, constituting formalized institutions. Given the access to certain public policies, approaches with social mediators were created in order to optimize strategies developed by local organizations. This relationship, which becomes conflicting as there are divergences of collective orientations for development, can be classified as a relation of complementarity, normative domination or difficulties and tensions. In this set of relations, approximations between organizations and social mediators who work advising the farmer's organizations are built up.

Fiuza de Braganca G.G.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Daglish T.,Victoria University of Wellington
Energy Economics | Year: 2016

Electricity is a non-storable commodity frequently traded in complex markets characterized by oligopolistic structures and uniform-price auctions. Electricity prices have idiosyncratic patterns not addressed by the usual commodity pricing literature. This paper develops an electricity market model that allows for oligopoly, vertical integration, and a uniform-price auction mechanism. It derives a linear equilibrium relationship between spot prices and state variables affecting firms' costs and demand. It then applies a two-factor forward pricing model over the equilibrium spot price process, and shows that forward prices can be positively affected by spot market power. An empirical estimation of the model follows, using NZEM data. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Burla C.,University of Porto | Camarano A.A.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Kanso S.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Fernandes D.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada IPEA | Nunes R.,University of Porto
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2013

It is only to be expected that the elderly population manifests a high prevalence of chronic diseases that jeopardize their autonomy. One example is syndromes of dementia. The scope of this paper is to make projections of the number of elderly individuals with dementia. An estimate of the current number is made by applying age-related prevalence data to the population of 65 and over, by age-group, with the figures from the Brazilian Demographic Census of 2010. The data were obtained from assessments found in the literature. For a national measure, a weighted average of the estimated prevalence was used. Prevalence rates by age and gender were calculated for the elderly Brazilian population. Current investigations show a steep increase of dementia with age. Women and illiterate individuals have a higher prevalence. The mean prevalence in Brazil is higher than that found in the rest of the world. Projections for the Brazilian population point to a small increase in the prevalence of dementia in the 65+ age-group, from 7.6% to 7.9% between 2010 and 2020, which means 55,000 new cases a year. Dementia is a public health issue, and elicits a strong bioethical concern with aging, due to the loss of autonomy of the affected individuals and the responsibility of the health system to provide adequate care.

Figueiredo M.G.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Barros A.L.M.,Fundacao Getulio Vargas FGV | Conceicao J.C.P.R.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada Ipea
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to assess the economic return from R&D investments in the citrus sector in São Paulo state, Brazil. Brazilaccounts for 80% of the total frozen concentrate orange juice (FCOJ) traded in the international market, and São Paulo state is responsible for 98% of Brazilian FCOJ exports. The Tornqüist Index Method was used to estimate the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) for the citrus industry, in order to compare the outcomes with and without citrus R&D investments. For every 1.00 Realinvested in citrus research, there is an increase of 13.00 Reaisin the values of orange production in São Paulo state.

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