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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Murray J.,University of Cambridge | Cerqueira D.R.D.C.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada | Kahn T.,Fundacao de Estudos e Formacao Politica do Partido Social Democratico
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2013

Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1. million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries. © 2013 The Authors.

Boing A.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bertoldi A.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Posenato L.G.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada | Peres K.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Peres K.G.,University of Adelaide
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS: Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS: After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS: Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged.

In Brazil, infant and child mortalityreveal a downward trend. Few studies have investigatedthe temporal trends in the inequalitiesof these deaths, at individual level, according tosocio-economic status. The scope of this articlewas to investigate the temporal trends of the magnitudeof inequalities in infant and child mortality,between groups defined by maternal educationand household income per capita in the1993-2008 period in Brazil. Microdata from theNational Household Sample Survey wereused. The inequality measure was the concentrationindex (CI). It was calculated for infant andchild deaths, according to maternal educationand household income per capita. During the2003-2008 period, there was a reduction in inequalitiesin infant and child mortality, at individuallevel, and according to maternal educationand household income per capita. In 2008,the concentration of child deaths among childrenwhose mothers had less education was higher thanthe concentration of infant deaths. The CI accordingto income had greater variability, butalso demonstrated a lower concentration of deathsat the end of the period. The measurement of inequalitiesin health is important for monitoringthe population health situation.

This texts aims to introduce some reflections on the role and relevance of health economics units (HEUs) regarding national health care systems. The starting points are the core aspects of this knowledge field and its contribution to health care management, to give rise to considerations on the role and relevance of such units. Matters such as the health care managers’ and political leaders’ knowledge on health economics, the need for HEUs to take simultaneous action at various levels in the organization of a qualified multidisciplinary technical body, as well as the technical and political nature of the work, their possibilities and limits for action, their aspects, and their relationship with external research groups. Finally, the work of a specialized internal health economics team is one of the means to qualify the decision-making process in public health care organizations, to optimize the use of resources and their proper equitable allocation. © 2016, UNIV SAOPAULO. All rights reserved.

Reis M.,Institute Pesquisa Economica Aplicada
Health Economics | Year: 2012

Empirical evidence indicates that children living in wealthier households have better health. Food insecurity could be related to lack of adequate nutrition experienced by poor children and may be pointed out as one of the possible explanations for this relationship. This paper investigates the association between food insecurity and children's health and nutrition and the role of the former in the child health income gradient. Using data from the 2006 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey, the results show that children living in households with food insecurity have worse nutrition and health indicators. In addition, the relationship between household income and many children's health and nutrition measures weakens but remains significant when controlling for food insecurity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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