Grant R.M.,University of California at San Francisco |
Grant R.M.,HIV Research Section |
Lama J.R.,Asoci acion Civil Impacta Salud y Educacion |
Lama J.R.,Gilead Sciences |
And 35 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
Background Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Methods We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC-TDF), or placebo once daily. All subjects received HIV testing, risk-reduction counseling, condoms, and management of sexually transmitted infections. Results The study subjects were followed for 3324 person-years (median, 1.2 years; maximum, 2.8 years). Of these subjects, 10 were found to have been infected with HIV at enrollment, and 100 became infected during follow-up (36 in the FTC-TDF group and 64 in the placebo group), indicating a 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV (95% confidence interval, 15 to 63; P = 0.005). In the FTC-TDF group, the study drug was detected in 22 of 43 of seronegative subjects (51%) and in 3 of 34 HIV-infected subjects (9%) (P<0.001). Nausea was reported more frequently during the first 4 weeks in the FTC-TDF group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (P = 0.57). Conclusions Oral FTC-TDF provided protection against the acquisition of HIV infection among the subjects. Detectable blood levels strongly correlated with the prophylactic effect. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458393.). © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Morais L.E.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Cavatte P.C.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Medina E.F.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Silva P.E.M.,Federal University of Viçosa |
And 6 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012
The economics of coffee plantations is intrinsically linked to pruning, which can improve the canopy architecture and thereby increase productivity. However, recommended pruning times on conilon coffee plantations have been made on an entirely empirical basis. In this study, by evaluating growth, photosynthetic gas exchanges, starch accumulation and crop productivity, the effects of pruning at different times between harvest and flowering were investigated for six conilon coffee clones with distinct stages of fruit maturation (early, intermediate and late). Clones with an early maturation stage were pruned at four different times: 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after harvest (DAH). Intermediate clones were pruned at 0, 30 and 60 DAH, and late clones were pruned at 0 and 30 DAH. Overall, the rates of shoot growth and net photosynthesis, the stomatal conductance and the crop yield were not affected by the pruning treatments in any of the clones. In addition, pruning times did not affect the concentrations of starch or the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The carbon isotope composition ratio was marginally affected by the treatments. These results suggest that the pruning time after harvests is relatively unimportant and pruning operations can be scheduled to optimise the use of labour, which directly impacts the production costs of coffee. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.
Molina J.-M.,University Paris Diderot |
Cahn P.,Fundacion Huesped |
Grinsztejn B.,Institute Pesquisa |
Lazzarin A.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University |
And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011
Background Efavirenz with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate and emtricitabine is a preferred antiretroviral regimen for treatment-naive patients infected with HIV-1. Rilpivirine, a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, has shown similar antiviral efficacy to efavirenz in a phase 2b trial with two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of rilpivirine versus efavirenz, each combined with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate and emtricitabine. Methods We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial, in patients infected with HIV-1 who were treatment-naive. The patients were aged 18 years or older with a plasma viral load at screening of 5000 copies per mL or greater, and viral sensitivity to all study drugs. Our trial was done at 112 sites across 21 countries. Patients were randomly assigned by a computer-generated interactive web response system to receive either once-daily 25 mg rilpivirine or once-daily 600 mg efavirenz, each with tenofovir- disoproxil-fumarate and emtricitabine. Our primary objective was to show non-inferiority (12 margin) of rilpivirine to efavirenz in terms of the percentage of patients with confirmed response (viral load <50 copies per mL intention-to-treat time-to-loss-of-virological-response [ITT-TLOVR] algorithm) at week 48. Our primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. We also used logistic regression to adjust for baseline viral load. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00540449. Findings 346 patients were randomly assigned to receive rilpivirine and 344 to receive efavirenz and received at least one dose of study drug, with 287 (83) and 285 (83) in the respective groups having a confirmed response at week 48. The point estimate from a logistic regression model for the percentage difference in response was -0·4 (95 CI -5·9 to 5·2), confirming non-inferiority with a 12 margin (primary endpoint). The incidence of virological failures was 13 (rilpivirine) versus 6 (efavirenz; 11 vs 4 by ITT-TLOVR). Grade 2-4 adverse events (55  on rilpivirine vs 108  on efavirenz, p<0·0001), discontinuations due to adverse events (eight  on rilpivirine vs 27  on efavirenz), rash, dizziness, and abnormal dreams or nightmares were more common with efavirenz. Increases in plasma lipids were significantly lower with rilpivirine. Interpretation Rilpivirine showed non-inferior efficacy compared with efavirenz, with a higher virological-failure rate, but a more favourable safety and tolerability profile. Funding Tibotec. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Dias S.,Institute Pesquisa
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental | Year: 2015
We present the clinical picture Hans Asperger named ‘autistic child psychopathy’ in the context of its discovery, a designation which has persisted to date, and relate that syndrome to Leo Kanner’s early infantile autism, which was discovered at the same time. We discuss the way Asperger’s work has remained neglected by researchers until the 1980s. © 2015, Associacao Universitaria de Pesquisa em Psicopatologia Fundamental. All rights reserved.
Ferraz T.M.,State University of Maranhão |
Netto A.T.,State University of Norte Fluminense |
De Oliveira Reis F.,State University of Maranhão |
Pecanha A.L.,State University of Norte Fluminense |
And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology | Year: 2015
Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: (1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method, and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gran Golden’ papaya (Carica papaya L.), (2) examine the relationship between xylem sap flow determined from calculations based on forcing water flow through a stem section, and whole canopy transpiration, and (3) verify the relationship between transpiration measured in a plant chamber and calculated reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The experiment was conducted in a commercial planting at the Caliman Agrícola SA farm, Sooretama, ES, Brazil in summer and winter. Whole-canopy gas exchange was measured in custom-built, flow-through whole-canopy Mylar® chambers. There was a correlation (r2 = 0.65) between xylem sap flow measured with the heat coefficient (K) method and whole-canopy transpiration rate measured in the chambers. However, sap flow methodology could not convert this correlated response into an accurate estimate of papaya transpiration measured with whole canopy chambers. The sap flow methodologies were linearly correlated with whole canopy transpiration but each would require additional calibration to the crop. ET0 was correlated with whole canopy transpiration in winter but not in summer likely due to stomatal control of transpiration, as a result of the high leaf temperature and ET0 in summer. The concept of sap flow to measure transpiration has value in papaya production but supplementary studies will be necessary to improve the accuracy and estimation of the whole-canopy transpiration in the papaya plant. © 2015, Brazilian Society of Plant Physiology.
Peres A.J.A.,São Paulo State University |
Tomquelski G.V.,Institute Pesquisa |
Papa G.,São Paulo State University |
Vilela R.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul |
Martins G.L.M.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Revista Brasileirade Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2012
The study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of pest and management of cotton genetically modified with the introduction of the bacterium Bacillus thunringiensis compared to conventional cotton in the 'Cerrado' region, installing the field experiment in 2007/2008 in Chapadão do Sul-MS. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 × 3 factorial, with two managements of insecticides (with and without insecticides to control lepidopteran) and 3 modes of use of cultivars: 100% transgenic (NUOPAL), 100% non transgenic (Deltaopal) and interior area with transgenic (80% NUOPAL) with non-transgenic border (20% Deltaopal) with five replications. Evaluations were performed weekly of pest infestation, observing in 15 plants per plot the number of Alabama argillacea, Heliothis virescens and Spodoptera frugiperda. Based on these results it was concluded that: the occurrence of A. argillacea and H. virescens was lower in treated transgenic cultivar. There were no differences between transgenic and conventional farming on the occurrence of S. frugiperda.
PubMed | Institute Pesquisa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista Brasileira de terapia intensiva | Year: 2014
The purpose of this review is to approach the main necessary aspects for the accomplishment of safety and efficient nutritional therapy to the critically ill patient.Bibliographical survey with didactic books and scientific articles was made in Portuguese, English and Spanish with results of the last 20 years. Nutritional support is an integrant part in the care of patients in intensive care units. The success of the nutritional therapy involves the stages of nutritional assessment, determines the route of diet infusion and the calories and nutrients needs.The use of nutrients with immune function (immunonutrients) is each more frequents, however, its use is not well established for critical illness. More clinical studies are necessary to establish the best form to nourish the critical ill patient.