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Tunis, Tunisia

Essid R.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Rahali F.Z.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Msaada K.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Sghair I.,Pasteur Institute Tunis | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The current study investigated the putative antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of twelve essential oils (EOs) and their major components on Leishmania (L.) major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Data showed that three EOs isolated from Ferula communis, Teucrium polium and Pelargonium graveolens displayed potent leishmaniacidal activity against L. major and L. infantum promastigotes (IC50 < 1 μg/mL) with low toxicity against Raw 264.7 macrophage cell line used as control. The best selectivity index was obtained for F. communis EO. Three major compounds namely β-caryophyllene, geraniol and carvacrol exhibited high leishmaniacidal activity with no evident cytotoxicity. Our study suggests that antileishmanial activity was not solely due to the major compounds from EOs but also to other components of the EOs. These findings could be a starting point for the development of new antileishmanial drugs from natural sources that combine various EOs containing bioactive compounds. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Ben-Alaya-Bouafif N.,Pasteur Institute Tunis | Bahri O.,Pasteur Institute Tunis | Chlif S.,Pasteur Institute Tunis | Bettaieb J.,Pasteur Institute Tunis | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

A population-based sero-epidemiological study enrolled 9486 volunteers in two governorates, Béja in the north and Tataouine in the south of Tunisia, in order to assess the magnitude of HBV transmission heterogeneity between the north and the south and within the same governorate, as well as the risk factors associated with infection and chronic carriage. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg and chronic carriage was 28.5, 5.3 and 2.9%, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the two governorates according to anti-HBc (32.1% in Béja and 27.8% in Tataouine; p = 0.005) and HBsAg prevalence (4.2% in Béja and 5.6% in Tataouine; p = 0.001). Significant differences were noticed between districts revealing important heterogeneity in HBV transmission within the same governorate (HBsAg ranged from 12 to <2% within the same governorate). At the individual level, the presence of a family member infected with HBV, scarification practices, needle practices in the Primary Care Center and gender (male) significantly increased the risk of anti-Hbc, HBsAg positivity and chronic carriage of infection while existence of sanitation in the house was found to be protective. The basic reproductive number and the force of infection confirmed the heterogeneity of transmission. Horizontal transmission within the family explains hyperendemic clusters in Tunisia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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