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Patent
Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Institute Pasteur Paris | Date: 2016-09-30

Methods of modifying, repairing, attenuating and inactivating a gene or other chromosomal DNA in a cell are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of treating or prophylaxis of a genetic disease in an individual in need thereof. Further disclosed are chimeric restriction endonucleases.


Patent
Institute Pasteur Paris, French National Center for Scientific Research, University of Paris Descartes and Assistance Publique Hopitaux De Paris | Date: 2016-10-12

The present invention relates to polynucleotides enabling the rapid, simple and specific detection of Group B Streptococcus highly-virulent ST-17 clones. The present invention also relates to the polypeptides encoded by said polynucleotides, as well as to antibodies directed or raised against said polypeptides. The present invention also relates to kits and methods for the specific detection of Group B Streptococcus highly-virulent ST-17 clones, using the polynucleotides, the polypeptides or the antibodies according to the invention.


Patent
Institute Pasteur Paris | Date: 2016-12-13

The present invention relates to a novel enhancer of protein production in host cells. It discloses a vector for expressing recombinant proteins in these cells, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a) a secretion peptidic signal, b) a 6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase enzyme (MGMT, EC 2.1.1.63), a mutant or a catalytic domain thereof, and c) a recombinant protein. Said MGMT enzyme is preferably the so-called SNAP protein.


Patent
Institute Pasteur Paris and Genomic Vision | Date: 2017-02-22

The present invention relates to a method of detection of the presence of at least one domain of interest on a macromolecule to test, wherein said method comprises the following steps:a) determining beforehand at least two target regions on the domain of interest, designing and obtaining corresponding labeled probes of each target region, named set of probe of the domain of interest, the position of these probes one compared to the others being chosen and forming the specific signature of said domain of interest on the macromolecule to test;b) after spreading of the macromolecule to test on which the probes obtained in step a) are bound, detection of the position one compared to the others of the probes bound on the linearized macromolecule, the detection of the signature of a domain of interest indicating the presence of said domain of interest on the macromolecule to test, and conversely the absence of detection of signature or part of signature of a domain of interest indicating the absence of said domain or part of said domain of interest on the macromolecule to test.


Patent
Institute Pasteur Paris and University of Paris Descartes | Date: 2017-01-11

The application relates to Listerin monocytogenes, more particularly to the determination of the clone to which a L. monocytogenes isolate belongs. The means of the application involve primers and/or probes, more particularly multiplex primers. The means of the application are notably useful to assess the invasivity that said L. monocytogenes isolate might show in a human being.


The invention relates to a method of predicting therapeutic responses to anti-TNF blockers before anti-TNF therapy comprising analyzing immune parameters to selected stimuli in patients before therapy and its use for anti-TNF therapy. The invention relates also to a method of determining a predictive biomarker of response to anti-TNF therapy and to the use of the predictive biomarker obtained by the method.


Patent
Institute Pasteur Paris, French Institute of Health, Medical Research and Assistance Publique Hopitaux De Paris | Date: 2017-04-19

A massive clonal expansion of activated CD8^(+) T-cells with increased frequency of HPV 16-specific CD8^(+) T-cells was discovered to be a characteristic of oral lichen planus (OLP), indicating a causal link between HPV infection and the dysimmune process. The invention relates to compositions and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of OLP patients.


Understanding the heterogeneity of human CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their potential for lineage reprogramming is of critical importance for moving Treg therapy into the clinics. Using multiparameter single-cell analysis techniques, we explored the heterogeneity and functional diversity of human Tregs in healthy donors and in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Human Tregs displayed a level of complexity similar to conventional CD4+ effector T cells with respect to the expression of transcription factors, homing receptors and inflammatory cytokines. Single-cell profiling of the rare Treg producing interleukin-17A or interferon-γ showed an overlap of gene expression signatures of Th17 or Th1 cells and of Tregs. To assess whether Treg homeostasis is affected by an inflammatory and lymphopenic environment, we characterized the Treg compartment in patients early after alloHSCT. This analysis suggested a marked depletion of Treg with a naive phenotype in patients developing acute graft-versus-host disease, compared with tolerant patients. However, single-cell profiling showed that CD4+FOXP3+ T cells maintain the Treg gene expression signature and Treg-suppressive activity was preserved. Our study establishes that heterogeneity at the single-cell level, rather than lineage reprogramming of CD4+FOXP3+ T cells, explains the remarkable complexity and functional diversity of human Tregs.


Etienne-Manneville S.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Migration is a polarized cellular process that opposes a protrusive front edge to a retracting trailing edge. From the front to the rear, actin-mediated forces sequentially promote cell protrusion, adhesion, contraction, and retraction. Over the past decade, microtubules have revealed their pivotal role in cell migration. Through their roles in cell mechanics, intracellular trafficking, and signaling, microtubules participate in all essential events leading to cell migration. The front-rear polarization of microtubule functions relies on the asymmetric regulation of microtubule dynamics and stability; the asymmetric distribution of microtubule-associated protein complexes; and finally, the orientation of the microtubule network along the axis of migration. Microtubule network polarity controls the establishment and maintenance of the spatial and temporal coordination of migration events and is therefore the key to persistent directed migration. This review summarizes our current understanding of the functions of microtubules in persistent cell migration and of the migration-associated signals that promote microtubule network polarization. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Etienne-Manneville S.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Microtubules are highly dynamic structures whose regulation is crucial for cell division, cell polarity, cell migration, or neuronal differentiation. Because they contribute to most cellular functions, they must be regulated in response to extracellular and intracellular signals. The parameters of microtubule dynamics are numerous and complex and the connection between signaling pathways and regulation of microtubule dynamics remain obscure. Recent observations reveal key players that can both integrate the diversity of signaling cascades and directly influence microtubule dynamics. I review here how modifications of the tubulin dimer, tubulin modifying enzymes, and microtubule-associated proteins are directly involved in the regulation of microtubule behavior and functions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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