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Kerbrat A.-S.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Darius H.T.,Institute Louis Malarde | Pauillac S.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie | Chinain M.,Institute Louis Malarde | Laurent D.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

Marine pelagic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium are widespread in the New Caledonia lagoon. Blooms of these Oscillatoriales are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain certain types of paralysing toxins. In the present study, toxicity experiments were conducted on lipid- and water-soluble extracts of freeze-dried samples of these cyanobacteria. Lipid-soluble fractions revealed a ciguatoxin-like activity in both in vivo (mouse bioassay) and in vitro (mouse neuroblastoma cells assay and receptor binding assay using tritiated brevetoxin-3) assays. The water-soluble fractions tested on mice exhibited neurotoxicity with paralytic symptoms. These toxicities have also been observed with benthic filamentous cyanobacteria within the Oscillatoriales order, also collected in New Caledonia. This study provides an unprecedented evidence of the toxicity of Trichodesmium species from the New Caledonia lagoon. This survey also demonstrates the possible role of these cyanobacteria in ciguatera fish poisoning. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Roth A.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Mercier A.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Lepers C.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Hoy D.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | And 4 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Since January 2012, the Pacific Region has experienced 28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. © 2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Guerrier G.,Center Hospitalier Territorial | D'Ortenzio E.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Leptospirosis is an endemo-epidemic zoonotic disease associated with potentially fatal renal, cardiovascular or pulmonary failure. Recommended treatment includes antibiotics, which may induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR). Since little information on the importance of this adverse event is available, we performed this review to quantify frequency and impact of JHR in leptospirosis management. Methodology/Principal Findings: This review systematically summarizes the literature on the JHR in leptospirosis. To approach the broader aspects of the subject, articles considering the treatment of leptospirosis, national leptospirosis guidelines and textbook and technical reports of the World Health Organisation were reviewed. Publications describing JHR in leptospirosis are very limited and consist mainly of single case reports and small case series. A single randomized control trial specifically assessed the JHR occurrence, but it has never been systematically investigated in large trials. Not all guidelines and not all literature on leptospirosis mention this reaction which can be fatal. Conclusions/Significance: Although generally assumed to be a rare event, the true prevalence of JHR in leptospirosis is unknown and the awareness of this event is insufficient. All leptospirosis guidelines and local leptospirosis protocols should stress on systematic monitoring for clinical status early after antibiotic administration. Large well designed studies are required to precise the incidence and the impact of JHR as well as the severity and rates between various antibiotics. © 2013 Guerrier, D'Ortenzio.

Vernel-Pauillac F.R.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie | Goarant C.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Parameters predicting the evolution of leptospirosis would be useful for clinicians, as well as to better understand severe leptospirosis, but are scarce and rarely validated. Because severe leptospirosis includes septic shock, similarities with predictors evidenced for sepsis and septic shock were studied in a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using an LD50 model of leptospirosis in hamsters, we first determined that 3 days postinfection was a time-point that allowed studying the regulation of immune gene expression and represented the onset of the clinical signs of the disease. In the absence of tools to assess serum concentrations of immune effectors in hamsters, we determined mRNA levels of various immune genes, especially cytokines, together with leptospiraemia at this particular time-point. We found differential expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, with significantly higher expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1α, cyclo-oxygenase 2 and interleukin 10 genes in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Higher leptospiraemia was also observed in nonsurvivors. Lastly, we demonstrated the relevance of these results by comparing their respective expression levels using a LD100 model or an isogenic high-passage nonvirulent variant. Conclusions/Significance: Up-regulated gene expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune effectors in hamsters with fatal outcome in an LD50 model of leptospirosis, together with a higher Leptospira burden, suggest that these gene expression levels could be predictors of adverse outcome in leptospirosis. © 2010 Vernel-Pauillac, Goarant.

Baumann F.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie | Bourrat M.-B.,Nurse clinic Entraide sante | Pauillac S.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie
Toxicon | Year: 2010

Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005.Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (<50%) and cardiac signs (<15%). Symptoms presented no difference between ethnic or gender groups, even for subjective signs. Most of poisonings were due to carnivorous fishes, but quite all species living in the lagoon were quoted. Symptoms persisted more than one year for 34% of the population, in both Melanesians and Caucasians.This study shows a significant increase of ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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