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Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

Fraisse A.,Food and Water Virology Unit | Temmam S.,ADRIA NORMANDIE | Deboosere N.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille Ipl | Guillier L.,Modelling of Bacterial Behaviour Unit | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology

In recent years, raw fruits and vegetables have frequently been involved in foodborne transmission to humans of enteric viruses, particularly noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Although viral contamination can occur during all steps of food processing, primary production is a critical stage on which prevention measures must be focused to minimize the risk of infection to consumers. Postharvest sanitation may be a valid technological solution for decreasing the bacterial load on fresh raw material, but there is a lack of data concerning the effectiveness of this process on enteric viruses. In this study, we compared the survival of two human norovirus surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV), and the murine norovirus (MNV-1), and of HAV on lettuce after water washing with bubbles and with or without ultrasound, and washing with bubbles in the presence of active chlorine (15 ppm) or peroxyacetic acid-based disinfectant (100 ppm). Cell culture and quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to detect and quantify the viruses on the surface of the lettuce after the sanitizing treatments. Levels of viral inactivation on the lettuce leaves were not significantly different between washing with bubbles and washing with bubbles plus ultrasound and were not dependant on the quantification method. A simple washing without disinfectant resulted in a decrease of approximately 0.7 log units in the quantity of virus detected for HAV and FCV and of 1.0 log unit for MNV-1.In the experimental set-up including a washing step (with or without ultrasound) followed by washing for 2 min in the presence of disinfectants, 15 ppm of active chlorine was found more effective for inactivating FCV (2.9 log units) than HAV and MNV-1 (1.9 log units and 1.4 log units, respectively) whereas 100 ppm of peroxyacetic-based biocide was found effective for inactivating FCV (3.2 log units) and MNV-1 (2.3 log units), but not HAV (0.7 log units). Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the presence of viral RNA did not correlate with the presence of infectious viruses on disinfected lettuce, except for MNV-1 processed with chlorine (15 ppm). In comparison with water washing, a substantial additional decrease of genomic FCV titer (1.1 log units) but no significant reduction of the genomic titers of HAV and MNV-1 were found on lettuce treated with chlorine (15 ppm). No significant effect of the disinfection step of lettuce with peroxyacetic-based biocide (100 ppm peracetic acid) was found by qRT-PCR on all genomic viral titers tested. This study illustrates the necessity of determining the effectiveness of technological processes against enteric viruses, using a relevant reference such as HAV, in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis and gastroenteritis by exposure to vegetables. © 2011. Source

Deboosere N.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille Ipl | Pinon A.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille Ipl | Caudrelier Y.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille Ipl | Delobel A.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille Ipl | And 10 more authors.
Food Microbiology

Enteric viruses, particularly human Noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are key food-borne pathogens. The attachment of these pathogens to foodstuff and food-contact surfaces is an important mechanism in the human contamination process. Studies were done to investigate the nature of the physicochemical forces, such as hydrophobic and electrostatic ones, involved in the interaction virus/matrix but, at this day, only few data are available concerning surface properties of viruses and prediction of the adhesion capacity of one specific virus onto matrices is still very difficult. The purpose of this study was to propose a reference system, including a representative virus surrogate, able to predict as close as possible behaviour of pathogenic viruses in term of adhesion on inert (stainless steel and polypropylene) and food surfaces (lettuce leaves, strawberries and raspberries). The adhesion of human pathogenic enteric viruses, cultivable strain of HAV and non-cultivable strains of human NoV (genogroups I and II), have been quantified and compared to these of human enteric viruses surrogates, included the MNV-1 and three F-specific RNA bacteriophages (MS2, GA and Qβ). A standardized approach was developed to assess and quantify viral adhesion on tested matrices after a contact time with each virus using real-time RT-PCR. Methods used for virus recovery were in accordance with the CEN recommendations, including a bovine Enterovirus type 1 as control to monitor the efficiency of the extraction process and amplification procedure from directly extracted or eluted samples. The adhesion of human pathogenic viruses, ranging from 0.1 to 2%, could be comparable for all matrices studied, except for NoV GII on soft fruits. Adhesion percentages obtained for the studied surrogate virus and phages were shown to be comparable to those of HAV and NoV on inert and lettuce surfaces. The MNV-1 appeared as the best candidate to simulate adhesion phenomena of all human pathogenic enteric viruses on all studied surfaces, while MS2 and GA bacteriophages could be a good alternative as model of viral adhesion on inert and lettuce surfaces. These results will be usable to design relevant experimental systems integrating adhesion behaviour of enteric viruses in the assessment of the efficiency of a technological or hygienic industrial process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vandoolaeghe S.,Lille University Hospital Center | Vandoolaeghe S.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Blaizot A.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Blaizot A.,Lille University | And 28 more authors.
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine

Background: Given that advances in research continuously raise new ethical issues, a multidisciplinary working group of investigators involved in biomedical research has gathered to discuss and compare ethical viewpoints in their daily practice. Methods: The working group has drafted a Charter for Ethics in Biomedical Research that encompasses all the steps in the research process, i.e. from the initial idea to analysis and publication of the results. Results: Based on key principles for ethically responsible research, the Charter may serve as a tool for performing research, discussing research issues and training researchers. Conclusions: The Charter should stimulate researchers to think about their responsibility for research in a progressive, caring society. © 2015 Vandoolaeghe et al. Source

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