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Guadeloupe, France

Cadmus S.,University of Ibadan | Hill V.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Van Soolingen D.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Soolingen D.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Rastogi N.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

We ran a comparative analysis of all patients for whom a positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was available between April 2004 and October 2005 and whose HIV serology results were known, with spoligotyping results (n = 163) split into 49 HIV-positive patients and 114 HIV-negative patients. Spoligotype international type 373 (SIT373) (T1 lineage), which was highly prevalent among the HIV+ patients, was totally absent from the HIV- population, suggesting that we had a specific clone affecting nearly 1/3 of all HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients. Among the LAM10-CAM sublineage strains, we had only a single strain of SIT403 among HIV- patients (0.88%), as opposed to 12.25% of the HIV+ population (χ2 = 10.77; P < 0.01), indicating a strong association between the strain and the HIV+ population. The LAM10-CAM lineage spoligotype SIT61 was prevalent among the 2 subsets (37.72% in HIV- versus 12.24% in HIV+ populations), though, with a significant difference between the 2 groups (χ2 = 10.53; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference for SIT53 (T1 lineage) in the 2 subsets: 6.14 versus 8.2% (χ2 = 0.22; P > 0.05). A total of 7/49, or 14.3%, other SITs among HIV+ patients were not found among the HIV- patients. When added to the most prevalent SIT among HIV+ patients (SIT373; n = 16), 23/49, or 47%, isolates among HIV-TB-coinfected patients were unique. We conclude that further studies should be carried out to investigate the evolution of these genotypes and others in the emergence of multidrug resistance and control of tuberculosis in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Jagielski T.,National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute | Augustynowicz-Kopec E.,National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute | Zozio T.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Rastogi N.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Zwolska Z.,National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The spoligotyping-based population structure of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Poland (n = 46), representing all culture-positive MDR tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, was compared to that of isoniazid (INH)-monoresistant strains (n = 71) isolated in 2004. The latter data set from a previous study (E. Augustynowicz-Kopeć, T. Jagielski, and Z. Zwolska, J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008, 46:4041-4044) represented 87% of all INH-monoresistant strains. The clustering rates and genotypic-diversity indexes for the 2 subpopulations were not significantly different (P = 0.05). The results were entered in the SITVIT2 database to assign specific shared type designations, corresponding genotypic lineages, and geographical distributions and compared to available data from neighboring countries (Germany, n = 704; Czech Republic, n = 530; Sweden, n = 379; Kaliningrad, Russia, n = 90) and strains from previous studies in Poland (n = 317). MDR strains resulted in 27 patterns (20 unique strains within the study and 7 clusters containing 2 to 6 isolates per cluster with a clustering rate of 56.5%) and belonged to the following genotypic lineages: ill-defined T family (28.3%), Haarlem (17.4%), Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (13%), Beijing (8.7%), S family (4.35%), and the X clade (2.17%). Comparison of the genetic structure of the MDR strains with that of INH-monoresistant strains showed that a total of 9 patterns were shared by both groups; these represented 1/3 of the MDR strains and 2/3 of the INH-monoresistant strains. Interestingly, 76.1% of the MDR isolates and 71.8% of the INH-resistant isolates yielded spoligotypes that were previously reported from Poland. The observation that nearly half of the spoligotypes identified among both MDR (48.1%) and INH-monoresistant (43.3%) M. tuberculosis isolates were present in Poland's neighboring countries suggested that a significant proportion of MDR and INH-resistant TB cases in Poland were caused by strains actively circulating in Poland or its neighbors. Our results corroborate the leading role of the T and Haarlem genotypes in the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in Poland. Nevertheless, the LAM and Beijing family strains that infected, correspondingly, 13% and 9% of patients with MDR-TB were absent among the strains from patients with INH-monoresistant TB, suggesting that a proportion of MDR-TB cases in Poland are due to ongoing transmission of MDR clones exhibiting specific genotypes. Study of the population genetic relationships between MDR and INH-monoresistant strains by drawing minimum spanning trees showed that ill-defined T1 sublineage strains (1/3 of all INH-monoresistant strains), represented by its prototype, SIT53, constituted the central node of the tree, followed by strains belonging to the well-defined H3, H1, and S subgroups. However, the MDR group, in addition, contained LAM (n = 6) and Beijing (n = 4) lineage isolates. With the exception of the 4 Beijing lineage strains in the latter group and a single orphan isolate in the INH-monoresistant group, none of the remaining 112/117 isolates belonged to principal genetic group 1 (PGG1) in our study. Given the high rate of clustering and the near absence of immigrants in the study, the persistence of MDR-TB in Poland seems to result from active transmission of MDR strains within the autochthonous population, the bulk of it caused by evolutionarily recent tubercle bacilli. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Goh K.S.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Rastogi N.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2010

Mycobacterium tuberculosis reduces nitrate very strongly as compared to Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. Nitrate reductase, in conjunction with niacin accumulation, constitutes one of the major biochemical tests used in clinical microbiology laboratories to differentiate M. tuberculosis from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex, as well as nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Determination of nitrate reductase activity is currently performed using cultures grown on solid media with a slow detection time and the need for large quantities of bacilli, as otherwise the test is not reliable. Hereby, we propose a nitrate reduction test coupled to Bactec MGIT960 system as a simple, rapid and economic method with a total gain of time of about 3 to 4. weeks over the conventional solid medium. In our study, almost all the M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium canettii strains gave a strongly positive nitrate reductase result within 1. day of positive detection by the MGIT960 system. In contrast, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG and M. africanum strains remained negative even after 14. days of incubation. The possibility to detect nitrate reductase within 1 to 3. days of a positive culture using MGIT960 opens new perspectives with the possibility of confirming M. tuberculosis - starting directly from pathological specimens. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nakanishi N.,Kobe Institute of Health | Wada T.,Nagasaki University | Arikawa K.,Kobe Institute of Health | Millet J.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Genotypic classification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has greatly contributed to the comprehension of phylogenetic and population genetic relationships. It is, therefore, necessary to verify the robustness of the genetic markers for phylogenetic classification. In this study, we report some examples of homoplasy for two molecular markers, the IS. 6110 insertion at the NTF region, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at locus 909166, through genotyping of 1054 Beijing family strains. Our data revealed that a small fraction of strains traditionally classified into modern sublineages by IS. 6110 insertion at NTF actually belong to an ancient sublineage. We also proved that the robustness of branches in the evolutionary tree established using the putative homoplasious SNP 909166 is relatively low. Our findings highlight the importance of validating genetic markers used to establish phylogeny, evolution, and phenotypic characteristics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Cerezo I.,National University of Colombia | Jimenez Y.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez J.,National University of Colombia | Zozio T.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

With an incidence of 25.6/100,000 in 2008, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health problem in Colombia. In this study, a total of 152 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated in Bogotá, Colombia between years 1995 and 2007 were genotyped by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs. The various spoligotyping-based genotypic lineages in our sample were: Latin American & Mediterranean (LAM) n=75, 49.34%; Haarlem, n=38, 25.0%; ill-defined T group, n=21, 13.82%; S family, n=5, 3.29%; X clade, n=2, 1.32%; Beijing, n=1, 0.65%, while strains with unknown signatures (n=10) represented 6.58% of isolates. Using spoligotyping as a first molecular marker and MIRU-VNTRs as second marker, we obtained 102 single patterns and 14 clustered patterns (n=52 strains from 49 patients, 2-8 strains per cluster). The MIRU-VNTRs patterns corresponded to 50 MITs for 109 strains and 43 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT190 (n=12), MIT45 (n=10), and MIT25 (n=9). The Hunter & Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) of both methodologies used together showed a value of 0.992. In our setting, the HGDI of five loci subset (MIRU10, 16, 23, 26 and 40) contributed most to the discriminatory power of 12-loci format used (HGDI = 0.977). The lineage distribution of M. tuberculosis showed that more than 3/4 of strains in Bogotá are commonly found in Latin America, Caribbean, and Europe. This observation might reflect the shared post-Columbus history of Colombia and its Latin-American neighbors as well as strains brought in by 20th century immigrants from Europe. We also demonstrate the usefulness of MIRU-VNTR to detect suspected links among patients and polyclonal infections. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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