Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

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PubMed | Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacognosy magazine | Year: 2015

Liver diseases are on rise and remain a serious health problem. Olax subscorpioidea and Distemonanthus benthamianus are two plants used in Ivorian traditional medicine in the treatment of many diseases including jaundice and hepatitis.The present study was carried out to assess the hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant potentials of the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of these plants in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The plant extracts at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg bw, and silymarin (25 mg/kg bw) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected once daily for 7 days to different groups of rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced on the 7(th) day in all the group animals except control. Rats were sacrificed on the 8(th) day and blood was collected. Serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity were measured using standard procedures. Histopathological examinations of liver rats were also performed.Hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 was well manifested by significant increase in serum activities of GOT, GPT, ALP and GGT, and enhancement of total bilirubin and TBARS levels. On the other hand, the level of total protein, albumin, 1-globulin significantly decreased, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity and TAP were lowered. Pretreatment with plant extracts and silymarin prevent the toxic effects of CCl4 by decreasing serum enzyme activities, total bilirubin and TBARS levels and improving serum TAP and DPPH-free radical scavenging potential. Histopathological observations showed almost normal hepatic cells with a mild degree of inflammation, lesser fatty infiltration and absence of necrosis among the rats treated at 100 mg/kg of extracts of both the plants.The results suggest that the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of O. subscorpioidea and D. benthamianus possesses hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activity.


Caini S.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research NIVEL | Huang Q.S.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research | Ciblak M.A.,Istanbul University | Kusznierz G.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Dr Emilio Coni | And 56 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2015

Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5) and Northern (n=7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n=14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type. Results: The database included 935673 influenza cases (2000-2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 22·6%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in ≈25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5-17years) than patients infected with influenza A. Conclusion: Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Caini S.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research NIVEL | Andrade W.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Badur S.,Istanbul University | Balmaseda A.,National Influenza Center | And 65 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with ≥80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. Results: 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks of influenza A and B coincided less frequently than in temperate countries. Temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics were heterogeneous in the tropics, with distinct seasonal epidemics observed only in some countries. Seasons with co-circulation of influenza A and B were longer than influenza A seasons, especially in the tropics. Discussion: Our findings show that influenza seasonality is less well defined in the tropics than in temperate regions. This has important implications for vaccination programmes in these countries. High-quality influenza surveillance systems are needed in the tropics to enable decisions about when to vaccinate. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


Lafond K.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lafond K.E.,University of Tampere | Nair H.,University of Edinburgh | Nair H.,Public Health Foundation of India | And 99 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to provide an estimate of influenza-associated hospitalizations among children worldwide. Methods and Findings: We aggregated data from a systematic review (n = 108) and surveillance platforms (n = 37) to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of samples collected from children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses and positive for influenza by age group (<6 mo, <1 y, <2 y, <5 y, 5–17 y, and <18 y). We applied this proportion to global estimates of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalizations among children aged <1 y and <5 y, to obtain the number and per capita rate of influenza-associated hospitalizations by geographic region and socio-economic status. Influenza was associated with 10% (95% CI 8%–11%) of respiratory hospitalizations in children <18 y worldwide, ranging from 5% (95% CI 3%–7%) among children <6 mo to 16% (95% CI 14%–20%) among children 5–17 y. On average, we estimated that influenza results in approximately 374,000 (95% CI 264,000 to 539,000) hospitalizations in children <1 y—of which 228,000 (95% CI 150,000 to 344,000) occur in children <6 mo—and 870,000 (95% CI 610,000 to 1,237,000) hospitalizations in children <5 y annually. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates were more than three times higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries (150/100,000 children/year versus 48/100,000). However, differences in hospitalization practices between settings are an important limitation in interpreting these findings. Conclusions: Influenza is an important contributor to respiratory hospitalizations among young children worldwide. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among young children and pregnant women could reduce this burden and protect infants <6 mo. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global Disease Detection, University of Pennsylvania and 14 more.
Type: | Journal: Influenza and other respiratory viruses | Year: 2015

Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000.Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5) and Northern (n = 7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n = 14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type.The database included 935 673 influenza cases (2000-2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 226%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in 25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5-17 years) than patients infected with influenza A.Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza.

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