Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire

Abidjan, Ivory Coast
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Konan K.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Justin N.K.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Lydie B.,Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire | Souleymane M.,Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire | And 2 more authors.
Pharmacognosy Magazine | Year: 2015

Background: Liver diseases are on rise and remain a serious health problem. Olax subscorpioidea and Distemonanthus benthamianus are two plants used in Ivorian traditional medicine in the treatment of many diseases including jaundice and hepatitis. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant potentials of the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of these plants in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg bw, and silymarin (25 mg/kg bw) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected once daily for 7 days to different groups of rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced on the 7th day in all the group animals except control. Rats were sacrificed on the 8th day and blood was collected. Serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity were measured using standard procedures. Histopathological examinations of liver rats were also performed. Results and Discussion: Hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 was well manifested by significant increase in serum activities of GOT, GPT, ALP and GGT, and enhancement of total bilirubin and TBARS levels. On the other hand, the level of total protein, albumin, α1 -globulin significantly decreased, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity and TAP were lowered. Pretreatment with plant extracts and silymarin prevent the toxic effects of CCl4 by decreasing serum enzyme activities, total bilirubin and TBARS levels and improving serum TAP and DPPH-free radical scavenging potential. Histopathological observations showed almost normal hepatic cells with a mild degree of inflammation, lesser fatty infiltration and absence of necrosis among the rats treated at 100 mg/kg of extracts of both the plants. Conclusion: The results suggest that the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of O. subscorpioidea and D. benthamianus possesses hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activity.


Bouagnon R.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Yeo D.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Kouassi K.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Bahi A.G.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2015

Aqueous leaf extract of Lippiamultiflorawas investigated for its effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Wistar albino rats weighing 100-160 g were orally pretreated withresveratrol (25 mg/kg/day) or L. multiflora extract (100, 300 and 900 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days before receiving single intraperitoneal (i. p) dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg) on the 7thday. Animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last administration. Blood was collected and analyzed for serum marker enzymes like lactate deshydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase-MB iso enzyme (CK-MB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hematological parameters (number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and hematocrits). Histopathological examination of rat hearts was also performed. Doxorubicin caused significant increasein the level of CK-MB, LDH, ALT, AST, ALP and white blood cells while causing reduction of red blood cells, platelets count and hematocrits. Pretreatment with L. multiflora extract significantly decreased CK-MB and LDH activities and white blood cells number. Red blood cells, platelets count and hematocrits were also reduced by L. multiflora extract. Histopathological study of the heart showed some important edema in doxorubicin treated rats and normal architecture of myocytes in L. multiflora extract (300 and 900 mg/kg b. w.) treated ratsprior doxorubicin administration. This studysuggested that L. multiflora extractpossessedprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced toxicity. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacognosy magazine | Year: 2015

Liver diseases are on rise and remain a serious health problem. Olax subscorpioidea and Distemonanthus benthamianus are two plants used in Ivorian traditional medicine in the treatment of many diseases including jaundice and hepatitis.The present study was carried out to assess the hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant potentials of the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of these plants in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The plant extracts at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg bw, and silymarin (25 mg/kg bw) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected once daily for 7 days to different groups of rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced on the 7(th) day in all the group animals except control. Rats were sacrificed on the 8(th) day and blood was collected. Serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity were measured using standard procedures. Histopathological examinations of liver rats were also performed.Hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 was well manifested by significant increase in serum activities of GOT, GPT, ALP and GGT, and enhancement of total bilirubin and TBARS levels. On the other hand, the level of total protein, albumin, 1-globulin significantly decreased, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity and TAP were lowered. Pretreatment with plant extracts and silymarin prevent the toxic effects of CCl4 by decreasing serum enzyme activities, total bilirubin and TBARS levels and improving serum TAP and DPPH-free radical scavenging potential. Histopathological observations showed almost normal hepatic cells with a mild degree of inflammation, lesser fatty infiltration and absence of necrosis among the rats treated at 100 mg/kg of extracts of both the plants.The results suggest that the hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of O. subscorpioidea and D. benthamianus possesses hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activity.


PubMed | Pasteur Institute of Cote dIvoire, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global Disease Detection, University of Pennsylvania and 14 more.
Type: | Journal: Influenza and other respiratory viruses | Year: 2015

Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000.Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5) and Northern (n = 7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n = 14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type.The database included 935 673 influenza cases (2000-2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 226%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in 25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5-17 years) than patients infected with influenza A.Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza.


Caini S.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research NIVEL | Huang Q.S.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research | Ciblak M.A.,Istanbul University | Kusznierz G.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Dr Emilio Coni | And 56 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2015

Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5) and Northern (n=7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n=14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type. Results: The database included 935673 influenza cases (2000-2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 22·6%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in ≈25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5-17years) than patients infected with influenza A. Conclusion: Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Lafond K.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lafond K.E.,University of Tampere | Nair H.,University of Edinburgh | Nair H.,Public Health Foundation of India | And 99 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to provide an estimate of influenza-associated hospitalizations among children worldwide. Methods and Findings: We aggregated data from a systematic review (n = 108) and surveillance platforms (n = 37) to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of samples collected from children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses and positive for influenza by age group (<6 mo, <1 y, <2 y, <5 y, 5–17 y, and <18 y). We applied this proportion to global estimates of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalizations among children aged <1 y and <5 y, to obtain the number and per capita rate of influenza-associated hospitalizations by geographic region and socio-economic status. Influenza was associated with 10% (95% CI 8%–11%) of respiratory hospitalizations in children <18 y worldwide, ranging from 5% (95% CI 3%–7%) among children <6 mo to 16% (95% CI 14%–20%) among children 5–17 y. On average, we estimated that influenza results in approximately 374,000 (95% CI 264,000 to 539,000) hospitalizations in children <1 y—of which 228,000 (95% CI 150,000 to 344,000) occur in children <6 mo—and 870,000 (95% CI 610,000 to 1,237,000) hospitalizations in children <5 y annually. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates were more than three times higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries (150/100,000 children/year versus 48/100,000). However, differences in hospitalization practices between settings are an important limitation in interpreting these findings. Conclusions: Influenza is an important contributor to respiratory hospitalizations among young children worldwide. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among young children and pregnant women could reduce this burden and protect infants <6 mo. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All Rights Reserved.

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