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Antananarivo, Madagascar

Rajatonirina S.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Razanajatovo N.H.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Ratsima E.H.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Orelle A.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of infectious disease-related morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality among children worldwide, and particularly in developing countries. In these low-income countries, most patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI), whether it is mild or severe, are still treated empirically.The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the evolution and outcome of respiratory illnesses in patients aged under 5 years old.Materials and Methods:We conducted a prospective study in a paediatric ward in Antananarivo from November 2010 to July 2012 including patients under 5 years old suffering from respiratory infections. We collected demographic, socio-economic, clinical and epidemiological data, and samples for laboratory analysis. Deaths, rapid progression to respiratory distress during hospitalisation, and hospitalisation for more than 10 days were considered as severe outcomes. We used multivariate analysis to study the effects of co-infections.Results:From November 2010 to July 2012, a total of 290 patients were enrolled. Co-infection was found in 192 patients (70%). Co-infections were more frequent in children under 36 months, with a significant difference for the 19-24 month-old group (OR: 8.0).Sixty-nine percent (230/290) of the patients recovered fully and without any severe outcome during hospitalisation; the outcome was scored as severe for 60 children and nine patients (3%) died.Risk factors significantly associated with worsening evolution during hospitalisation (severe outcome) were admission at age under 6 months (OR = 5.3), comorbidity (OR = 4.6) and low household income (OR = 4.1).Conclusion:Co-mordidity, low-income and age under 6 months increase the risk of severe outcome for children infected by numerous respiratory pathogens. These results highlight the need for implementation of targeted public health policy to reduce the contribution of respiratory diseases to childhood morbidity and mortality in low income countries. © 2013 Rajatonirina et al.

van Kerkhove M.D.,World Health Organization | van Kerkhove M.D.,Imperial College London | Vandemaele K.A.H.,World Health Organization | Shinde V.,World Health Organization | And 39 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Since the start of the 2009 influenza A pandemic (H1N1pdm), the World Health Organization and its member states have gathered information to characterize the clinical severity of H1N1pdm infection and to assist policy makers to determine risk groups for targeted control measures. Methods and Findings: Data were collected on approximately 70,000 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized H1N1pdm patients, 9,700 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and 2,500 deaths reported between 1 April 2009 and 1 January 2010 from 19 countries or administrative regions-Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, the United States, and the United Kingdom-to characterize and compare the distribution of risk factors among H1N1pdm patients at three levels of severity: hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths. The median age of patients increased with severity of disease. The highest per capita risk of hospitalization was among patients <5 y and 5-14 y (relative risk [RR] = 3.3 and 3.2, respectively, compared to the general population), whereas the highest risk of death per capita was in the age groups 50-64 y and ≥65 y (RR = 1.5 and 1.6, respectively, compared to the general population). Similarly, the ratio of H1N1pdm deaths to hospitalizations increased with age and was the highest in the ≥65-y-old age group, indicating that while infection rates have been observed to be very low in the oldest age group, risk of death in those over the age of 64 y who became infected was higher than in younger groups. The proportion of H1N1pdm patients with one or more reported chronic conditions increased with severity (median = 31.1%, 52.3%, and 61.8% of hospitalized, ICU-admitted, and fatal H1N1pdm cases, respectively). With the exception of the risk factors asthma, pregnancy, and obesity, the proportion of patients with each risk factor increased with severity level. For all levels of severity, pregnant women in their third trimester consistently accounted for the majority of the total of pregnant women. Our findings suggest that morbid obesity might be a risk factor for ICU admission and fatal outcome (RR = 36.3). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that risk factors for severe H1N1pdm infection are similar to those for seasonal influenza, with some notable differences, such as younger age groups and obesity, and reinforce the need to identify and protect groups at highest risk of severe outcomes.

Rajatonirina S.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Heraud J.-M.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Randrianasolo L.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | Randrianasolo N.,Institute Pasteur from Madagascar | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2011

Introduction: In October 2009, the first outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in Madagascar occurred at a school in Antananarivo. Among the first 12 cases, five were reported in boarding pupils at the school. The school closed 10 days into the outbreak. Mass oseltamivir prophylactic treatment was used to contain the outbreak. This study aimed to determine the transmission of infection among boarding school pupils and to evaluate the adverse effects of oseltamivir chemoprophylactic treatment and their impact on compliance. Methodology: After conducting an initial investigation of the outbreak we administered a questionnaire to 132 boarders who were present after the school re-opened. Questions addressed symptoms of influenza-like illness, compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and adverse effects. Results: Of 59 boarders, 20 (45.0%) had confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection. Among the asymptomatic boarders, compliance with oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis was moderate: 56.2% took the full 10-day course, and 66.9% completed at least seven days. In contrast, among symptomatic boarders, only two did not take the full course of oseltamivir. Fifty percent of the boarders receiving oseltamivir experienced symptoms such as fatigue (38.7%), difficulty concentrating (22.6%) and headaches (19.4%). Bad compliance was not associated with adverse effects. Conclusion: Since the symptoms of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus were generally mild, the burden of adverse effects must be considered when deciding on mass oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis among teenagers. © 2011 Rajatonirina et al.

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