Casablanca, Morocco
Casablanca, Morocco

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Aboumaad B.,University Hassan 1 | Iba N.,University Hassan 1 | Dersi N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion’s venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na+, K+ activated or not by Ca++. The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-4 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2012

MEDIGENE project will study genetic and environmental (G x E) determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent immigrants in Europe by a novel approach integrating ancestry of Mediterranean populations in epidemiology, locus refining and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). West Mediterranean shores are place of pre-historical termini of population expansion from Southern Europe and North Africa. Archaeogenetic studies in Europe indicated that Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA patterns or Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) revealed a close relationship between genetic and geographic distances able to locate an individual DNA within few hundred kilometers. The project will use this information in mapping the genetic basis of insulin resistance, cardiovascular and metabolic complications in immigrants (Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Tunisians, Algerians and Morocco) in host countries France, Spain, Italy and Greece. Ancestry markers and studies on ancient DNA from Roman historical migration in Catalonia will help to give a better picture of the genetic landscape of Europe and North Africa. Genes for MetS will be studied in existing samples from host and home countries by GWAS, locus refining by next-generation sequencing and haplotype mapping. Informative filtered SNPs will be then used in epidemiology and novel DNA samples to reveal G x E interactions and specificities of the pathogenesis of MetS. Genetic findings will be replicated in home countries (Anatolia and North Africa) in the goal to develop markers ethnic specific and significant at a clinical scale. Major impact is expected from dissemination of our findings to prevent the occurrence of MetS and obesity in children and adolescents or in descendants of modern immigration, understanding variability clinical manifestations of MetS in the context of malnutrition and from the novel approach of GWAS strategies by ameliorating the association signal and bursting R&D activities of SMEs.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.1.2-4 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2010

Chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common chronic viral infections of humans and a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Still about 4 million new infections occur world-wide each year with 50-85% of patients progressing to chronic hepatitis C. Currently there is no marker to predict spontaneous viral clearance and to guide treatment decisions. The major objectives of the HepaCute proposal are to develop biomarkers predicting the outcome of acute hepatitis C, improving the management of the related patients and thus decreasing the health burden of hepatitis C in Europe and Mediterranean partner countries (MPC). The HepaCute consortium has evolved from a series of EC-funded projects on hepatitis C (HCVacc/HepCvax/Virgil/HEPACIVAC) and consists of world leading experts in HCV epidemiology, immunology, and virology, including partners from Egypt and Morocco, who have strongly influenced the current management of patients with acute hepatitis C in their respective regions, and contributed considerably to our understanding of mechanisms of spontaneous viral clearance. The HepaCute proposal is closely connected to ongoing national, European, and Egyptian networks on HCV research (HepNet, EASL, STDF), which will support HepaCute to make it a success.Together with another pertinent EU-funded research project, SPHINX, it actively contributes to coordinating EU-funded hepatitis C research with pertinent research projects funded in the MCP countries, in particular with hepatitis research projects funded under the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF). Within HepaCute the most innovative technologies will be employed such as genome-wide association studies, transcriptomics, proteomics, and ultra-deep sequencing to better understand the early events in acute hepatitis C and to translate these results into readily practicable diagnostic tools to predict spontaneous viral clearance. HepaCute has firmly integrated partners from Egypt and Morocco with preexisting research collaborations with European partners into the scientific research programm and we expect this continuing partnership between European and Mediterranean countries to have a strong impact on the care of patients with acute hepatitis C both in Europe and MPC.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-5 | Award Amount: 2.41M | Year: 2011

The coordinates of human health are complex even in a single population but they are even more complex in migrants whose life situation is always influenced by the host country and the country of origin. Some migrants may experience several host countries and some return to the country of origin. Thus it is important to survey well being, health status, disease panorama and use of health services of immigrants compared to the native population; such analyses would be incomplete without casting a view on the same indicators and parameters in the country of origin. Thus for this project we have collected a team of experts to cover health aspects of the full cycle of migration, viewing the health situation in Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria as representatives of the Mediterranean North African (NA) partner countries, the origins of vast numbers of immigrants in EU. The EU partner countries from France, Italy, Germany (subcontracting Slovenia) and Sweden are not only receivers of the NA immigrants but they also have larger numbers of immigrants from others areas, allowing comparisons between immigrant groups. The team has experience on a variety of health and disease measures and it has an access to a variety of survey and register material relating to population health, disease patterns and function of health care systems. Many of the surveys and diseases registers have been carried out/constructed by the present partners who thus possess unique sources of data. The team will be in the position to respond to the expectations of the call by reviewing health effects of migration from the country of origin to the host country and coming up with scientifically valid state-of-the-art evaluations and appropriate recommendations for scientific and health policy measures in improving the conditions for the EU immigrants.


Le Hello S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Harrois D.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bouchrif B.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Sontag L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Salmonella enterica is a major global food-borne pathogen, causing life-threatening infections. Ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are the drugs of choice for severe infections. We previously reported a ciprofloxacin-resistant S enterica serotype Kentucky (S Kentucky) ST198-X1 strain that emerged in Egypt and spread throughout Africa and the Middle East from 2002 to 2008. We aimed to monitor recent trends in the location of transmission and antimicrobial resistance of this strain. Methods: We analysed isolates of S Kentucky collected by the French national surveillance system for salmonellosis in France from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2011, and at two sites in Casablanca, Morocco, between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2011. We analysed patterns of travel of patients infected with a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain of S Kentucky. We identified isolates showing resistance to ESCs or decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, characterised isolates by XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, and assessed mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Findings: 954 (1%) of 128836 serotyped Salmonella spp isolates in France were identified as S Kentucky, as were 30 (13%) of 226 Salmonella spp isolates from Morocco. During 2000-08, 200 (40%) of 497 subculturable isolates of S Kentucky obtained in France were resistant to ciprofloxacin, compared with 376 (83%) of 455 isolates in 2009-11, suggesting a recent increase in ciprofloxacin resistance in France. Travel histories suggested S Kentucky infections originated predominantly in east Africa, north Africa, west Africa, and the Middle East, but also arose in India. We report several occurrences of acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15), plasmid-encoded cephalosporinase (CMY-2), or carbapenemase (OXA-48, VIM-2) genes by ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of S Kentucky ST198-X1 from the Mediterranean area since 2009. Many of these highly drug-resistant isolates were also resistant to most aminoglycosides, to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and to azithromycin. Interpretation: The potential risk to public health posed by ciprofloxacin-resistant S Kentucky ST198-X1 warrants its inclusion in national programmes for the control of S enterica in food-producing animals, in particular in poultry. Funding: Institut Pasteur, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, French Government Investissement d'Avenir programme. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Amraoui F.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Amraoui F.,Université Ibn Tofail | Tijane M.,Université Ibn Tofail | Sarih M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Failloux A.-B.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions including North Africa. Cx. pipiens has two recognized forms or biotypes; pipiens and molestus are morphologically indistinguishable with distinct behavior and physiology that may influence their vectorial status. In our study, we prospected for the different forms of Cx. pipiens in Morocco. Methods: Cx. pipiens larvae were collected in 9 sites throughout Morocco during summer 2010 and reared until imago stage. Cx. pipiens was identified using diagnostic primers designed for the flanking region of microsatellite CQ11. Results: We established the presence of both forms of Cx. pipiens and their hybrids in Morocco. Conclusions: Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of Cx. pipiens form molestus in Morocco and hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms in North Africa. The epidemiological implications of our findings are discussed. © 2012 Amraoui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ajaoud M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Ajaoud M.,Hassan II University | Es-Sette N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Hamdi S.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Morocco, anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica is considered as a public health problem, but its epidemiology has not been fully elucidated. The main objective of this study was to detect Leishmania infection in the vector, Phlebotomus sergenti and in human skin samples, in the El Hanchane locality, an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Morocco. Methods. A total of 643 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. Leishmania species were characterized by ITS1 PCR-RFLP and ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene nested-PCR of samples from 123 females of Phlebotomus sergenti and 7 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Results: The sand flies collected consisted of 9 species, 7 of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and two to the genus Sergentomyia. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most predominant (76.67%).By ITS1 PCR-RFLP Leishmania tropica was found in three Phlebotomus sergenti females and four patients (4/7). Using nested PCR Leishmania tropica was identified in the same three Phlebotomus sergenti females and all the 7 patients. The sequencing of the nested PCR products recognized 7 haplotypes, of which 6 have never been described. Conclusions: This is the first molecular detection and identification of Leishmania tropica in human skin samples and Phlebotomus sergenti in support of its vector status in El Hanchane. The finding of seven Leishmania tropica haplotypes underscores heterogeneity of this species at a high level in Morocco. © 2013 Ajaoud et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Es-Sette N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Es-Sette N.,Hassan II University | Ajaoud M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Laamrani-Idrissi A.,Service de Parasitologie | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. Methods. 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. Results: The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively.The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. Conclusions: We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. © 2014 Es-sette et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Arroub H.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | Hamdi S.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Ajaoud M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Habbari K.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | Lemrani M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

The region of Foum Jamâa (province of Azilal) has become endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) since 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular identification of the etiological agent of CL in this region; we also carried out an entomological survey of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in this focus to study the sand fly fauna, species composition, and the monthly prevalence of sand flies during 1 year. In the period between 2009 and 2010, skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected from 119 patients, aged from 9 months to 70 years old, who came from 43 localities distributed in 3 sectors in Foum Jamâa (FJ). The ITS1 PCR-RFLP was used to identify the Leishmania parasite responsible for the recent cases of CL in FJ. Our results revealed that the disease is caused by L. tropica. No significant association was observed between gender and the rate of CL in presenting patients, while the highest rate of positive lesions was found in the age group of 9 years old or under (86.67%). In this study, we found also that L. tropica infection mostly caused single lesions (67.90%) that were located in the face (96.30%). Morphological identification was performed on a total of 1152 sand flies (23% females and 77% males) collected by sticky paper traps. 57% of the total collected flies were identified as Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (Parrot). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Oubrim N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) | Year: 2011

This study was undertaken to enumerate pathogens: fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci and Salmonella in the areas irrigated with treated wastewater. The samples were isolated from Settat (33°00'N, 7°37'W) and Soualem regions (34°26'N, 5°53'W). A total of (n= 48) raw water, (n=48) treated water, (n=71) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Settat; A total of (n=24) raw water, (n=24) treated water, (n=97) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Soualem. The results show the total average in the two stations of raw water 7.9, 6.1 log MPN 100 ml -1 for respectively fecal coliforms and E. coli, 5.4 log CFU 100 ml -1 for fecal enterococci and 5.2 log MPN L -1 for Salmonella; for treated water 4.6, 3.1 log MPN 100 ml -1 for respectively fecal coliforms and E.coli and 3.5 log CFU 100 ml -1 for fecal enterococci. Regarding plants, four types of crops were harvested and analyzed (forage, herbs, cereals and vegetables), the germs charges were found with fecal coliforms, E.coli and fecal enterococci respectively 3.2, 2.8 and 4.1 log CFUg -1. Salmonella was never detected in both treated water and crops samples.

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