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Casablanca, Morocco

Le Hello S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Harrois D.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bouchrif B.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Sontag L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Salmonella enterica is a major global food-borne pathogen, causing life-threatening infections. Ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are the drugs of choice for severe infections. We previously reported a ciprofloxacin-resistant S enterica serotype Kentucky (S Kentucky) ST198-X1 strain that emerged in Egypt and spread throughout Africa and the Middle East from 2002 to 2008. We aimed to monitor recent trends in the location of transmission and antimicrobial resistance of this strain. Methods: We analysed isolates of S Kentucky collected by the French national surveillance system for salmonellosis in France from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2011, and at two sites in Casablanca, Morocco, between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2011. We analysed patterns of travel of patients infected with a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain of S Kentucky. We identified isolates showing resistance to ESCs or decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, characterised isolates by XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, and assessed mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Findings: 954 (1%) of 128836 serotyped Salmonella spp isolates in France were identified as S Kentucky, as were 30 (13%) of 226 Salmonella spp isolates from Morocco. During 2000-08, 200 (40%) of 497 subculturable isolates of S Kentucky obtained in France were resistant to ciprofloxacin, compared with 376 (83%) of 455 isolates in 2009-11, suggesting a recent increase in ciprofloxacin resistance in France. Travel histories suggested S Kentucky infections originated predominantly in east Africa, north Africa, west Africa, and the Middle East, but also arose in India. We report several occurrences of acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15), plasmid-encoded cephalosporinase (CMY-2), or carbapenemase (OXA-48, VIM-2) genes by ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of S Kentucky ST198-X1 from the Mediterranean area since 2009. Many of these highly drug-resistant isolates were also resistant to most aminoglycosides, to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and to azithromycin. Interpretation: The potential risk to public health posed by ciprofloxacin-resistant S Kentucky ST198-X1 warrants its inclusion in national programmes for the control of S enterica in food-producing animals, in particular in poultry. Funding: Institut Pasteur, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, French Government Investissement d'Avenir programme. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Aboumaad B.,University Hassan 1 | Iba N.,University Hassan 1 | Dersi N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion’s venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na+, K+ activated or not by Ca++. The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France. Source


Oubrim N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) | Year: 2011

This study was undertaken to enumerate pathogens: fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci and Salmonella in the areas irrigated with treated wastewater. The samples were isolated from Settat (33°00'N, 7°37'W) and Soualem regions (34°26'N, 5°53'W). A total of (n= 48) raw water, (n=48) treated water, (n=71) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Settat; A total of (n=24) raw water, (n=24) treated water, (n=97) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Soualem. The results show the total average in the two stations of raw water 7.9, 6.1 log MPN 100 ml -1 for respectively fecal coliforms and E. coli, 5.4 log CFU 100 ml -1 for fecal enterococci and 5.2 log MPN L -1 for Salmonella; for treated water 4.6, 3.1 log MPN 100 ml -1 for respectively fecal coliforms and E.coli and 3.5 log CFU 100 ml -1 for fecal enterococci. Regarding plants, four types of crops were harvested and analyzed (forage, herbs, cereals and vegetables), the germs charges were found with fecal coliforms, E.coli and fecal enterococci respectively 3.2, 2.8 and 4.1 log CFUg -1. Salmonella was never detected in both treated water and crops samples. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-4 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2012

MEDIGENE project will study genetic and environmental (G x E) determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent immigrants in Europe by a novel approach integrating ancestry of Mediterranean populations in epidemiology, locus refining and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). West Mediterranean shores are place of pre-historical termini of population expansion from Southern Europe and North Africa. Archaeogenetic studies in Europe indicated that Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA patterns or Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) revealed a close relationship between genetic and geographic distances able to locate an individual DNA within few hundred kilometers. The project will use this information in mapping the genetic basis of insulin resistance, cardiovascular and metabolic complications in immigrants (Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Tunisians, Algerians and Morocco) in host countries France, Spain, Italy and Greece. Ancestry markers and studies on ancient DNA from Roman historical migration in Catalonia will help to give a better picture of the genetic landscape of Europe and North Africa. Genes for MetS will be studied in existing samples from host and home countries by GWAS, locus refining by next-generation sequencing and haplotype mapping. Informative filtered SNPs will be then used in epidemiology and novel DNA samples to reveal G x E interactions and specificities of the pathogenesis of MetS. Genetic findings will be replicated in home countries (Anatolia and North Africa) in the goal to develop markers ethnic specific and significant at a clinical scale. Major impact is expected from dissemination of our findings to prevent the occurrence of MetS and obesity in children and adolescents or in descendants of modern immigration, understanding variability clinical manifestations of MetS in the context of malnutrition and from the novel approach of GWAS strategies by ameliorating the association signal and bursting R&D activities of SMEs.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-5 | Award Amount: 2.41M | Year: 2011

The coordinates of human health are complex even in a single population but they are even more complex in migrants whose life situation is always influenced by the host country and the country of origin. Some migrants may experience several host countries and some return to the country of origin. Thus it is important to survey well being, health status, disease panorama and use of health services of immigrants compared to the native population; such analyses would be incomplete without casting a view on the same indicators and parameters in the country of origin. Thus for this project we have collected a team of experts to cover health aspects of the full cycle of migration, viewing the health situation in Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria as representatives of the Mediterranean North African (NA) partner countries, the origins of vast numbers of immigrants in EU. The EU partner countries from France, Italy, Germany (subcontracting Slovenia) and Sweden are not only receivers of the NA immigrants but they also have larger numbers of immigrants from others areas, allowing comparisons between immigrant groups. The team has experience on a variety of health and disease measures and it has an access to a variety of survey and register material relating to population health, disease patterns and function of health care systems. Many of the surveys and diseases registers have been carried out/constructed by the present partners who thus possess unique sources of data. The team will be in the position to respond to the expectations of the call by reviewing health effects of migration from the country of origin to the host country and coming up with scientifically valid state-of-the-art evaluations and appropriate recommendations for scientific and health policy measures in improving the conditions for the EU immigrants.

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