Christoffolete M.A.,University of Sao Paulo |
Christoffolete M.A.,Federal University of ABC |
Silva W.J.,University of Sao Paulo |
Ramos G.V.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015
We characterized the metabolic profile of transgenic mice exhibiting enhanced muscle mass driven by increased mIGF-1 expression (MLC/mIGF-1). As expected, 6-month-old MLC/mIGF-1 mice were heavier than age-matched wild type (WT) mice (37.4 ± 0.3 versus 31.8 ± 0.6 g, resp.). MLC/mIGF-1 mice had higher respiratory quotient when compared to WT (0.9 ± 0.03 versus 0.74 ± 0.02, resp.) suggesting a preference for carbohydrate as the major fuel source. MLC/mIGF-1 mice had a higher rate of glucose disposal when compared to WT (3.25 ± 0.14 versus 2.39 ± 0.03%/min, resp.). The higher disposal rate correlated to ~2-fold higher GLUT4 content in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Analysis of mRNA content for the glycolysis-related gene PFK-1 showed ~3-fold upregulation in MLC/mIGF-1 animals. We also found a 50% downregulation of PGC1α mRNA levels in MLC/mIGF-1 mouse EDL muscle, suggesting less abundant mitochondria in this tissue. We found no difference in the expression of PPARα and PPARβ/δ, suggesting no modulation of key elements in oxidative metabolism. These data together suggest a shift in metabolism towards higher carbohydrate utilization, and that could explain the increased insulin sensitivity of hypertrophied skeletal muscle in MLC/mIGF-1 mice. © 2015 Marcelo Augusto Christoffolete et al.
Oltolina F.,University of Piemonte Orientale |
Zamperone A.,University of Piemonte Orientale |
Zamperone A.,Yeshiva University |
Colangelo D.,University of Piemonte Orientale |
And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM). We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-To-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol. Copyright: © 2015 Oltolina et al.
Pelosi L.,Institute Pasteur Cenci Bolognetti |
Berardinelli M.G.,Institute Pasteur Cenci Bolognetti |
Forcina L.,Institute Pasteur Cenci Bolognetti |
Spelta E.,Institute Pasteur Cenci Bolognetti |
And 8 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive lethal muscle degeneration and chronic inflammatory response. The mdx mouse strain has served as the animal model for human DMD. However, while DMD patients undergo extensive necrosis, the affected muscles of adult mdx mice rapidly regenerates and regains structural and functional integrity. The basis for the mild effects observed in mice compared with the lethal consequences in humans remains unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is causally linked to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. We report that forced expression of IL-6, in the adult mdx mice, recapitulates the severe phenotypic characteristics of DMD in humans. Increased levels of IL-6 exacerbate the dystrophic muscle phenotype, sustaining inflammatory response and repeated cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration, leading to exhaustion of satellite cells. The mdx/IL6 mouse closely approximates the human disease and more faithfully recapitulates the disease progression in humans. This study promises to significantly advance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to DMD. © The Author 2015.