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Zilli T.,University of Geneva | Jorcano S.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Peguret N.,University of Geneva | Caparrotti F.,University of Geneva | And 6 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

Background. To assess treatment tolerance by patients treated with a dose-adapted salvage radiotherapy (SRT) protocol based on an multiparametric endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (erMRI) failure definition model after radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and methods. A total of 171 prostate cancer patients recurring after RP undergoing erMRI before SRT were analyzed. A median dose of 64 Gy was delivered to the prostatic bed (PB) with, in addition, a boost of 10 Gy to the suspected relapse as visualized on erMRI in 131 patients (76.6%). Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the RTOG scale. Results. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI acute toxicity were observed in three and zero patients, respectively. The four-year grade ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 late GU and GI toxicity-free survival rates (109 patients with at least two years of follow-up) were 83.9 ± 4.7% and 87.1 ± 4.2%, and 92.1 ± 3.6% and 97.5 ± 1.7%, respectively. Boost (p = 0.048) and grade ≥ 2 acute GU toxicity (p = 0.008) were independently correlated with grade ≥ 2 late GU toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. A dose-adapted, erMRI-based SRT approach treating the PB with a boost to the suspected local recurrence may potentially improve the therapeutic ratio by selecting patients that are most likely expected to benefit from SRT doses above 70 Gy as well as by reducing the size of the highest-dose target volume. Further prospective trials are needed to investigate the use of erMRI in SRT as well as the role of dose-adapted protocols and the best fractionation schedule. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Miralbell R.,University of Geneva | Miralbell R.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Roberts S.A.,University of Manchester | Zubizarreta E.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Hendry J.H.,Adlington
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: There are reports of a high sensitivity of prostate cancer to radiotherapy dose fractionation, and this has prompted several trials of hypofractionation schedules. It remains unclear whether hypofractionation will provide a significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of prostate cancer, and whether there are different fractionation sensitivities for different stages of disease. In order to address this, multiple primary datasets have been collected for analysis. Methods and Materials: Seven datasets were assembled from institutions worldwide. A total of 5969 patients were treated using external beams with or without androgen deprivation (AD). Standard fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction) was used for 40% of the patients, and hypofractionation (2.5-6.7 Gy per fraction) for the remainder. The overall treatment time ranged from 1 to 8 weeks. Low-risk patients comprised 23% of the total, intermediate-risk 44%, and high-risk 33%. Direct analysis of the primary data for tumor control at 5 years was undertaken, using the Phoenix criterion of biochemical relapse-free survival, in order to calculate values in the linear-quadratic equation of k (natural log of the effective target cell number), α (dose-response slope using very low doses per fraction), and the ratio α/β that characterizes dose-fractionation sensitivity. Results: There was no significant difference between the α/β value for the three risk groups, and the value of α/β for the pooled data was 1.4 (95% CI = 0.9-2.2) Gy. Androgen deprivation improved the bNED outcome index by about 5% for all risk groups, but did not affect the α/β value. Conclusions: The overall α/β value was consistently low, unaffected by AD deprivation, and lower than the appropriate values for late normal-tissue morbidity. Hence the fractionation sensitivity differential (tumor/normal tissue) favors the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules for all risk groups, which is also very beneficial logistically in limited-resource settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Jorcano S.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Molla M.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Escude L.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Sanz S.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research | And 5 more authors.
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study is to report toxicity and outcome results in patients with gynaecological tumours treated with a final boost using extra-cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a linac-based micro-multileaf collimator technique as an alternative to high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Since January 2002, 26 patients with either endometrial (n = 17) or cervical (n = 9) cancer were treated according to this protocol: 45-50.4 Gy external radiotherapy (RT) to the pelvic ± para-aortic regions followed by a final SRT boost of 2 x 7 Gy to the vaginal vault (4-7 day interval between fractions). Median age was 62 years (37-74 range). Fifteen patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, 7 with squamous-cell carcinoma, and 4 with sarcoma. FIGO stage I (n = 17), stage II (n = 7), and stage III (n = 2). Toxicity was scored according to RTOG/EORTC criteria. No severe (>grade-3) acute urinary or low-gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was observed during treatment and up to 3 months after treatment completion. Moderate (grade ≤ 3) acute urinary or low-GI toxicity was observed in 23% and 35% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 47 months (4-77, range), late urinary, low-GI, and sexual ≥grade-2 (worst score) has been reported in 4%, 12% and 29.4% of patients, respectively. The 3-year loco-regional failure-free and overall survival rates were 96% and 95%, respectively. Preliminary results on feasibility, tolerance, and outcome with SRT are encouraging and may be considered a sound alternative to HDR-BT for gynecologic tumors. ©Adenine Press (2010).


Zilli T.,University of Geneva | Jorcano S.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Escude L.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Linero D.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Aims: To evaluate the tolerance and preliminary outcome of prostate cancer patients at high risk of lymph node involvement treated with normofractionated whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) followed by a hypofractionated boost to the prostate with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Materials and methods: Between 2004 and 2011, 78 T1-4N0M0 prostate cancer patients at high risk of lymph node involvement (70 patients with a Roach index ≥ 15%; 57 with T-stage ≥ 3a; 40 with Gleason score ≥ 8) underwent WPRT to a median normofractionated dose of 50.4 Gy (range 48.0-50.4 Gy) with conformal three-dimensional techniques for most patients. A 24 Gy boost (4 Gy/six fractions, twice weekly) was delivered to the prostate with IMRT. The total median delivered dose was 74.4 Gy, equivalent to 85.2 Gy in 2 Gy/fractions (α/β = 1.5 Gy). All patients underwent androgen deprivation for a total median time of 10.8 months. The maximum gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute and late toxicity scores were recorded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Results: All patients completed treatment as planned. Only 1% of patients presented with grade 3 genitourinary or gastrointestinal acute toxicity and none scored ≥ grade 4. With a median follow-up of 57 months, the 5 year probability of late grade ≥2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity-free survival was 79.1 ± 4.8% and 84.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. The 5 year biochemical disease-free survival, local relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival were 84.5 ± 4.5%, 96.0 ± 2.8% and 86.4 ± 4.4%, respectively. A pre-radiotherapy prostate-specific antigen ≤0.3 ng/ml was associated with a better 5 year biochemical disease-free survival (P = 0.036) and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.049). Conclusions: The use of a hypofractionated IMRT boost after WPRT may allow a minimally invasive dose escalation to successfully treat patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer at high risk of lymph node involvement. Higher prostate-specific antigen values before radiotherapy may require alternative adjuvant treatments to further optimise the outcome of this high-risk group of patients. © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists.


Zilli T.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva | Rouzaud M.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva | Jorcano S.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva | Dipasquale G.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva | And 10 more authors.
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

To assess acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with a sequential dose escalation hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) study using two different delivery methods. Since 2003, 88 and 48 patients were sequentially treated to 56 Gy and to 60 Gy (4 Gy/fraction twice weekly), respectively. IMRT with 6 MV beams was delivered with five fields in Geneva and with nine in Barcelona. Acute GI and GU side effects were scored weekly during treatment and 6 weeks after treatment completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scale. Clinical, technical, and dosimetric parameters were analyzed in order to assess for a potential correlation with toxicity. Grade 1-2, GU and GI toxicities during and 6 weeks after treatment completion were 64%, and 24%, and 35% and 12%, respectively. Only one Grade 4 GU toxicity, consisting of transitory urinary obstruction, was observed. Patients treated to 60 Gy in Geneva presented a higher rate of Grade 1-2 GU toxicity (p = 0.01), while patients treated to both 56 and 60 Gy in Barcelona presented a higher Grade 1-2 GI toxicity (p = 0.02). A lower rate of rectal toxicity was observed in the subgroup of 22 patients treated with a rectal balloon (p = 0.02). The use of androgen deprivation therapy was associated with a higher rate of Grade 1-2 GU toxicity after the end of the treatment (p = 0.02). Dose escalation with either 14 x 4 Gy or 15 x 4 Gy delivered with two different IMRT techniques is feasible and is associated with a tolerable acute toxicity. ©Adenine Press (2010).


Schick U.,University of Geneva | Jorcano S.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Nouet P.,University of Geneva | Rouzaud M.,University of Geneva | And 6 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2013

Background. Substantial survival may be observed with oligometastatic prostate cancer. Combining androgen deprivation (AD) and high-dose external beam radiotherapy (RT) to isolated regional or distant lesions may be proposed for these patients and the outcome of this strategy is the purpose of the present report. Material and methods. From 2003 to 2010, 50 prostate cancer patients were diagnosed with synchronous (n = 7) or metachronous (n = 43) oligometastases (OM). Among the relapsing patients, the recurrence occurred after radical prostatectomy in 33 patients and curative RT (± AD) in 10 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 48-82). All patients underwent a bone scan and 18F-choline or 11C-acetate PET-CT at the time of diagnosis or relapse, showing regional and/or distant nodal and bone and/or visceral metastases in 33 and 17 patients, respectively. The median delivered effective dose was 64 Gy. All but one patient received neo-adjuvant and concomitant AD. Results. After a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 9-89) the three-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), clinical failure-free survival, and overall survival rates were 54.5%, 58.6% and 92%, respectively. No grade 3 toxicity was observed. Improved bRFS was found to be significantly associated with the number of OM. The three-year bRFS was 66.5% versus 36.4% for patients with 1 and > 1 OMs (p = 0.031). A normalised total dose (NTD in 2 Gy/fraction, alpha/beta = 2 Gy) above 64 Gy was also correlated with a better three-year bRFS compared to lower doses: 65% vs. 41.8%, respectively (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, only the NTD > 64 Gy retained statistical significance (HR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.93). Conclusion. Oligometastatic patients may be successfully treated with short AD and high-dose irradiation to the metastatic lesions. High dose improves bRFS. Such a treatment strategy may hypothetically succeed to prolong the failure-free interval between two consecutive AD courses. © 2013 Informa Healthcare.


Roberts S.A.,University of Manchester | Miralbell R.,University of Geneva | Miralbell R.,Institute Oncologic Teknon | Zubizarreta E.H.,International Atomic Energy Agency | And 2 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2014

Background and purpose To analyse biochemical relapse-free-survival results for prostate cancer patients receiving combined external beam and high-dose-rate brachytherapy, in comparison with expected results using projections based on dose/fractionation/response parameter values deduced from a previous external-beam-alone 5969-patient multicentre dataset. Material and methods Results on a total of 3145 prostate cancer patients receiving brachytherapy (BT) as part or all of their treatment were collected from 10 institutions, and subjected to linear-quadratic (LQ) modelling of dose response and fractionation parameters. Results Treatments with BT components of less than 25 Gy, 3-4 BT fractions, doses per BT fraction up to 6 Gy, and treatment times of 3-7 weeks, all gave outcomes expected from LQ projections of the external-beam-alone data (α/β = 1.42 Gy). However, BT doses higher than 30 Gy, 1-2 fractions, 9 fractions (BT alone), doses per fraction of 9-15 Gy, and treatment in only 1 week (one example), gave local control levels lower than the expected levels by up to ∼35%. Conclusions There are various potential causes of the lower-than-projected control levels for some schedules of brachytherapy: it seems plausible that cold spots in the brachytherapy dose distribution may be contributory, and the applicability of the LQ model at high doses per fraction remains somewhat uncertain. The results of further trials may help elucidate the true benefit of hypofractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Institute Oncologic Teknon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Technology in cancer research & treatment | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study is to report toxicity and outcome results in patients with gynaecological tumours treated with a final boost using extra-cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a linac-based micro-multileaf collimator technique as an alternative to high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Since January 2002, 26 patients with either endometrial (n = 17) or cervical (n = 9) cancer were treated according to this protocol: 45-50.4 Gy external radiotherapy (RT) to the pelvic +/- para-aortic regions followed by a final SRT boost of 2 x 7 Gy to the vaginal vault (4-7 day interval between fractions). Median age was 62 years (37-74 range). Fifteen patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, 7 with squamous-cell carcinoma, and 4 with sarcoma. FIGO stage I (n = 17), stage II (n = 7), and stage III (n = 2). Toxicity was scored according to RTOG/EORTC criteria. No severe (> grade-3) acute urinary or low-gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was observed during treatment and up to 3 months after treatment completion. Moderate (grade < or = 3) acute urinary or low-GI toxicity was observed in 23% and 35% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 47 months (4-77, range), late urinary, low-GI, and sexual > or = grade-2 (worst score) has been reported in 4%, 12% and 29.4% of patients, respectively. The 3-year loco-regional failure-free and overall survival rates were 96% and 95%, respectively. Preliminary results on feasibility, tolerance, and outcome with SRT are encouraging and may be considered a sound alternative to HDR-BT for gynecologic tumors.


PubMed | Institute Oncologic Teknon
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics | Year: 2010

To evaluate the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated according to a hypofractionated dose escalation protocol to boost the dominant tumor-bearing region of the prostate.After conventional fractionated external radiotherapy to 64 to 64.4 Gy, 50 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy hypofractionated boost under stereotactic conditions to a reduced prostate volume to the dominant tumor region. A rectal balloon inflated with 60 cc of air was used for internal organ immobilization. Five, 8, and 8 patients were sequentially treated with two fractions of 5, 6, or 7 Gy, respectively (normalized total dose in 2 Gy/fraction [NTD(2 Gy)] < 100 Gy, low-dose group), whereas 29 patients received two fractions of 8 Gy each (NTD(2 Gy) > 100 Gy, high-dose group). Androgen deprivation was given to 33 patients. Acute and late toxicities were assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scoring system.Two patients presented with Grade 3 acute urinary toxicity. The 5-year probabilities of >or=Grade 2 late urinary and late low gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity-free survival were 82.2% +/- 7.4% and 72.2% +/- 7.6%, respectively. The incidence and severity of acute or late toxicities were not correlated with low- vs. high-dose groups, pelvic irradiation, age, or treatment with or without androgen deprivation. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survival (b-DFS) and disease-specific survival were 98% +/- 1.9% and 100%, respectively.Intensity-modulated radiotherapy hypofractionated boost dose escalation under stereotactic conditions was feasible, and showed excellent outcomes with acceptable long-term toxicity. This approach may well be considered an alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

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