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Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhong Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Deng J.,Institute of Wild Animals | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Fecal specimens from two Bactrian camels were collected in the Ya'an city zoo of China and were examined for Cryptosporidium by centrifugal flotation. One specimen was found to be parasitized by Cryptosporidium via microscopy, and the oocysts were measured to have an average size of 7.03×5.50 μm (n>50). The isolate was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the partial 18S rRNA, COWP, and A135 genes, and was confirmed to be Cryptosporidium andersoni with minor nucleotide differences. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis indicated that the subtype of the camel-derived C. andersoni isolate was A4, A4, A4, and A1 at the four minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16, respectively). Therefore, this isolate belongs to the most common MLST subtype reported in cattle in China and is distinct from two other known camel C. andersoni MLST subtypes (A6, A4, A2, A1 and A6, A5, A2, A1). Animal transmission experiments demonstrated that the C. andersoni isolate was not infectious to immunosuppressed or immunocompetent Kun-ming mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and hamsters but was biologically similar to most bovine C. andersoni isolates characterized so far. Therefore, transmission of this camel-derived C. andersoni isolate is very likely to occur between camels and bovine. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xie N.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. © 2015 Liu et al. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhong Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen W.,Institute of Wild Animals | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2014

Given the paucity of literature available on rabbits infected with Cryptosporidium in Sichuan Province (China), 290 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in the animal house of Sichuan Agricultural University, China and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the Sheather's sucrose flotation technique and a modified acid-fast staining method. Three samples tested positive (prevalence = 1.03%). The positive isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA, HSP70, COWP, and Cp135 genes and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis was established using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. All the isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Further subtyping of the positive isolates was performed by DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Only 1 subtype family was detected, Va, which was proposed to be a new subtype, VaA31. This study is the first report about the prevalence, genetic identification, and Cp135 gene of C. cuniculus in rabbits in Sichuan Province, China. The obtained results indicate that the C. cuniculus subtype in rabbits in Sichuan Province is unique. © American Society of Parasitologists 2014.

Li W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Deng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu X.,Institute of Wild Animals | Zhong Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 14 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common opportunistic pathogen that is widely detected in humans, domestic animals and wildlife, and poses a challenge to public health. The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence, genotypic diversity and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among wildlife at Chengdu and Bifengxia zoological gardens in Sichuan Province, China. Results: Of the 272 fresh fecal samples harvested from 70 captive wildlife species at Chengdu Zoo (n = 198) and Bifengxia Zoo (n = 74), 21 (10.6 %) and 22 (29.7 %) tested positive for E. bieneusi by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis, respectively. Specifically, genotypes D, Peru 6, CHB1, BEB6, CHS9, SC02 and SC03, and genotypes D, CHB1, SC01 and SC02 were detected in the Chengdu and Bifengxia Zoo samples, respectively. Five known genotypes (D, Peru 6, BEB6, CHS9 and CHB1) and three novel genotypes (SC01, SC02 and SC03) were clustered into the zoonotic group (group 1) and host-adapted group (group 2). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis targeting three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) were successfully sequenced for 37, 33, 35 and 37 specimens, generating 8, 3, 11 and 15 distinct locus types, respectively. Altogether, we identified 27 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) among the E. bieneusi isolates by MLST. These data highlight the high genetic diversity of E. bieneusi among zoo wildlife. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence and genotypic diversity of E. bieneusi infections among captive wildlife in zoos in southwest China. Notably, we identified three novel E. bieneusi genotypes, as well as six new mammalian hosts (Asian golden cats, Tibetian blue bears, blackbucks, hog deer, Malayan sun bears and brown bears) for this organism. Moreover, the occurrence of zoonotic genotypes suggests that wildlife may act as reservoirs of E. bieneusi that can serve as a source of human microsporidiosis. The findings presented here should contribute to the control of zoonotic disease in China. © 2016 The Author(s).

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