Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China

Yangling, China

Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China

Yangling, China

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Yang Z.Y.,Northwest University, China | Liu C.Y.,Northwest University, China | Du Y.Y.,Northwest University, China | Chen L.,Northwest University, China | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2017

Rht18, derived from Triticum durum (tetraploid) wheat, is classified as a gibberellic acid (GA)-responsive dwarfing gene. Prior to this study, the responses of Rht18 to exogenous GA on agronomic traits in hexaploid wheat were still unknown. The response of Rht18 to exogenous GA3 on coleoptile length, plant height, yield components and other agronomic traits were investigated using F4:5 and F5:6 hexaploid dwarf lines with Rht18 derived from two crosses between the tetraploid donor Icaro and tall Chinese winter wheat cultivars, Xifeng 20 and Jinmai 47. Applications of exogenous GA3 significantly increased coleoptile length in both lines and their tall parents. Plant height was significantly increased by 21.3 and 10.7% in the GA3-treated dwarf lines of Xifeng 20 and Jinmai 47, respectively. Compared to the untreated dwarf lines, the partitioning of dry matter to ears at anthesis was significantly decreased while the partitioning of dry matter to stems was significantly increased in the GA3-treated dwarf lines. There were no obvious changes in plant height and dry matter partitioning in the GA3-treated tall parents. Exogenous GA3 significantly decreased grain number spike-1 while it increased 1000-kernel weight in both the dwarf lines and tall parents. Thus, applications of exogenous GA3 restored plant height and other agronomic traits of Rht18 dwarf lines to the levels of the tall parents. This study indicated that Rht18 dwarf mutants are GA-deficient lines with impaired GA biosynthesis. © 2017 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Cao L.,Northwest University, China | Cao L.,North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power | Cao L.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China | Wu P.,Northwest University, China | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

As non-point source pollution and salinization being the important environmental pollution source that affects food security, the evaluation and quantification of such negative effects on agricultural production become the urgent eco-environment issues need to be solved. It is possible to quantify the negative effects of agricultural production because of the foundation of Water Footprint Theory. Water footprint contains blue water footprint, green water footprint and grey water footprint. Grey water footprint (GWF) can represents the value of different types of negative effects, of which the GWF of grain production represents the negative effect of per unit grain production. In the study, water footprint theory is used and Hetao irrigation district in Inner Mongolia was employed as the study area. The calculation method of the grain production GWF were given and the parameters of maximum environmental allowable concentration (Cmax) and background concentration (Cnat) were selected. Each kind of GWF was calculated Item by item, and the total GWF was computed using the Cask Theory, so the GWF of grain production was calculated and analyzed. The results showed that the GWF of non-point source pollution was 0.55-0.58×108m3 during the period of 2005-2008. The GWF of salification was 4.570×108m3 in 2005 and decreased to 1.825×108m3 in 2008.The total GWF was declined from 5.872×108m3 in 2006 to 1.825×108m3 in 2008. In year of 2005-2008, the total GWF was less than 10% of total water footprint, and showed a slightly decline tend along the years. The GWF of grain production from year of 2005 to 2008 was 0.129 m3/kg, 0.159 m3/kg, 0.062 m3/kg and 0.043 m3/kg, respectively. In general, the GWF of grain production showed declining tend, which in 2008 was only equivalent to 27.04% of that in 2006. The extension of new agricultural technologies such as water-saving irrigation was the main reason, water-saving irrigation significantly reduce GWF of grain production by decreasing ineffective irrigation and invalid moisture evaporation. Based on these, the measures, including water saving, cropping structure adjustment, reasonably determination of ground water level and reasonable utilization of fertilizers and pesticides, are recommended for reducing the GWF of grain production. The negative effects of environmental issues on food production and GWF of grain production in large-scale irrigation area are quantified preferably. The results can offer a valuable reference for the agricultural sustainable development and formulating agricultural industry policy for other similar grain-producing regions.

Ju X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Weckler R.P.,Oklahoma State University | Zhang L.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhu D.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

The chosen of lateral layout is the basis of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation laterals. A simple and easily adaptable analytical approach was developed for the hydraulic design of micro-irrigation laterals laid on uniformly sloping grounds based on the appropriate layouts. Two indictors for comparing the emitter flow variation and inlet working pressure head from the paired layout and single downhill layout were proposed based on the analytical models of micro-irrigation laterals. By evaluating the effects of micro-irrigation laterals layouts on the emitter flow variation and working pressure head, the application condition for paired layout was suggested as the best manifold position is not less than 0.13. When the best manifold position is less than 0.13, the micro-irrigation lateral was proposed to use the single downhill layout in order to save the extra cost of material and installation from the paired layout. The design procedure for hydraulic design of micro-irrigation laterals was revised by considering the determination of appropriate layout. Two design cases covering various conditions indicated that the best manifold position criterion for determining the appropriate layout is more effective than the value of ground slope proposed by Keller method. The proposed approach could produce accurate results for practical purposes. This research could provide valuable information for improving the hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. © 2016, Editorial Office of Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering. All right reserved.

Cao X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Cao X.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China | And 8 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

Based on grain output and generalized water resources input, water productivity and utilization factor of generalized water in irrigation districts of 31 provinces were counted and it's spatial and temporal differences were analyzed. The results showed that water productivity of every province presented an increasing trend, and national average water productivity increased from 0.67 kg/m 3 to 0.81 kg/m 3 from 1998 to 2010. Spatial autocorrelation analysis results showed provinces with resemble water productivity value showed significant aggregation, and Moran's I inspection values were higher than confidence level (0.01). Distributions of provinces with high water productivity value were centered with Huang-Huai-Hai plain, and provinces with lower water productivity values were distributed in South and Northeast China. Local autocorrelation analysis revealed that more than 20 provinces showed high-high positive autocorrelation(HH) and low-low positive autocorrelation(LL), general and regional spatial differentiation characteristics in 1998-2010 was insignificant. Generalized water use coefficient of different province increased, and there were no consistency on relations between water productivity and water use coefficient in different provinces, there were still great water saving potential in provinces with high water productivity value, and reasons of spatial differences for water productivity and generalized water utilization factor were analyzed from natural conditions, agricultural production features, economic development levels, etc. This research provides references for making macro policies of water resources management in irrigation districts.

Zheng J.C.,Northwest University, China | Hu Y.G.,Northwest University, China | Hu Y.G.,Anhui Science and Technology University | Hu Y.G.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016

ERECTA is an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that coordinate growth and development of plant. TaERECTA, one copy of the ERECTA homologs in wheat, was isolated from bread wheat Chinese Spring. The Ser/Thr kinase of TaERECTA was expressed in E. coli after IPTG induction and confirmed by immunoblot. TaERECTA showed higher expression in younger organs with rapid development, as well as great expression in younger spikes at booting stage. Under exogenous application of gibberellin (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA), and Mg2+ stress, the expression of TaERECTA was largely suppressed, whereas under exogenous application of indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinolide (BR), and dehydration stress, its expression was initially suppressed and then up-regulated. Natural variation was apparent in the relative expression of TaERECTA among 9 different bread wheat lines, and its expression level was negatively correlated with the stomatal density. These results suggested that TaERECTA could be exploitable for manipulating agronomical traits important through regulating stomata density, with potential implication for bread wheat improvement. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Zheng J.,Northwest University, China | Yang Z.,Northwest University, China | Madgwick P.J.,Rothamsted Research | Carmo-Silva E.,Rothamsted Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement. © 2015 Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Yasir T.A.,Northwest University, China | Min D.,Northwest University, China | Chen X.,Northwest University, China | Condon A.G.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Drought is a major issue affecting crop grain yield. Augmenting grain yield and crop water use efficiency (WUE) under drought is crucial for enhancing world crop production and food availability. Relationships of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) with gas exchange parameters, yield traits and SPAD (leaf relative chlorophyll content) values were examined on a collection of 49-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under two levels of restricted irrigation in a rainout shelter. Water stress was applied at grain filling stage. The highest water-stress treatment received 40% less water than the milder-stress treatment. Significant and positive correlations were found between Δ and photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and the ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration to ambient CO2 concentration (Ci/Ca), while significant and negative correlations were obtained between Δ and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) under both water regimes. Strong positive correlations of Δ with grain yield (GY), biomass (BM) and harvest index (HI) were also observed in both water regimes, but no correlation was observed between Δ and SPAD values. Mean values of all other parameters were calculated for the five genotypes based on Δ value, i.e. the five genotypes which produced the highest Δ and five genotypes which produced the lowest Δ. It was found that mean values for all the parameters were increased for the high Δ genotypes and decreased for low Δ genotypes except for iWUE in both water regimes. These results suggest that Δ may be a good trait as an indirect selection criterion for genotypic improvement in drought tolerance of wheat under restricted irrigation, especially in conditions similar to those encountered here where limited water was applied during grain filling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Huang L.,Northwest University, China | Yasir T.A.,Northwest University, China | Phillips A.L.,Rothamsted Research | Hu Y.-G.,Northwest University, China | Hu Y.-G.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

The orthologue of Arabidopsis ERECTA gene (ER) in wheat, TaER, is considered to be a promising candidate gene for the genetic improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance in breeding programs. In this study, we isolated two distinct homologues (TaER1 and TaER2) of TaER genes in common wheat through in silico screening and PCR-based homologous cloning. Sequence analysis revealed that these two genes had a similar intron/exon structure with 27 exons and 26 introns, and each of them encode a putative Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like serine/threonine protein kinase in common wheat. The coding sequence (CDS) is 2928 bp for TaER1, encoding a protein with 975 amino acid residues, and 2931 bp for TaER2 deduced to encode 976 amino acid residues, and their corresponding genomic DNA sequences are 6858 bp and 7114 bp, respectively. Cloning and sequencing of 55 TaER cDNA clones revealed five transcript variants of TaER1 and nine spliced isoforms of TaER2, designated as TaER1.1 to TaER1.5 and TaER2.1 to TaER2.9 respectively. Genome specific primers were designed based on the sequence divergence of the promoter regions between the two homologous genes. PCR amplification from genomic DNA of Chinese Spring (CS) nullisomic-tetrasomic lines revealed that TaER1 and TaER2 were located on chromosomes 7D and 7B in common wheat, respectively. TaER1 and TaER2 have therefore been renamed as TaER-D1 (GeneBank accession: JQ599260.2) and TaER-B1 (GeneBank accession: JQ599261.2) respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the TaER genes were strongly expressed in young immature tissues and organs and could be up-regulated by numerous environmental stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold stress and heat stress. This indicated that it may play significant roles in wheat growth and development and be a regulator in the response to environmental stress.

Liu C.,Northwest University, China | Yang Z.,Northwest University, China | Hu Y.-G.,Northwest University, China | Hu Y.-G.,Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Regions of China
Field Crops Research | Year: 2015

Drought is the single greatest abiotic stress leading to yield loss of wheat worldwide. The long-term domestication and selective breeding in artificial environments may have reduced the drought resistance of wheat. Wheat alien chromosome addition lines, with chromosomes derived from wild species, may possess drought resistant genetic potential and could serve as a bridge for transferring those traits to wheat. The drought resistance of 82 wheat alien chromosome addition lines along with their common parent Chinese Spring were evaluated for 10 agronomic traits under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Spike length was the most stable trait while biomass plant-1 was the most sensitive trait when subjected to drought stress. Evaluation of heritability and correlations with yield plant-1 suggested that plant height, peduncle length, distance between spike and flag leaf, grain number spike-1 and thousand-grain weight could be used as indicators of drought resistance. The membership function value of drought resistance (MFVD) based on those traits and grain yield plant-1, indicated 26 of the 82 wheat addition lines expressed high drought resistance. Higher MFVD was observed in the Agropyron elongatum 3E addition line in two years, and it was considered as the most drought resistant material. Analysis of the yield plant-1 suggested that the drought resistant addition lines identified by MFVD were drought resistant but not very high-yielding, thus they could be used to improve germplasm with high-yield potential but low drought resistance. The drought resistance index (DI) based on yield plant-1 indicated that 10 addition lines included both drought resistance and greater grain yield, which could be used in moderate stressed areas for improving drought resistance. Among them, addition lines with Aegilops peregrina 4SV and Ae. peregrina 3UV chromosome showed excellent performance and could be further investigated in drought resistance studies or breeding programs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Wang Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Chen L.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Du Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Yang Z.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

GA-insensitive (GAI) dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b have been widely used to reduce plant height, increase yield and improve harvest index, but they also express shorter coleoptiles and poor seedling vigor. GA-responsive dwarfing genes, such as Rht13 have potential for wheat improvement since they may not be associated with the latter effects. In this study, the effects of dwarfing genes Rht-D1b and Rht13 on plant height, coleoptile length, seedling root characters and yield components were investigated and compared in field environments in northwest China, using F2:3 and F3:4 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese winter wheat Xinong223 (Rht-D1b) and Magnif M1 (Rht13). The results showed that both Rht13 and Rht-D1b significantly reduced internode length and plant height. GA-responsive (GAR) dwarfing gene Rht13 reduced plant height by 16.5%, but did not affect coleoptile length or seedling root characters. Rht13 lines demonstrated better seedling vigor with greater potential for seedling establishment in the field. The GAI dwarfing gene Rht-D1b was associated with shorter plant height (22.0% in general) along with shorter coleoptile length, shorter total root length, smaller root surface area, and less root volume. These phenotypes may contribute to lower seedling vigor and poorer seedling emergence in the field. The GAR dwarfing gene Rht13 could compensate for some of the negative effect of the GAI dwarfing gene Rht-D1b on root surface area and root volume, which could benefit the root system. The combination of these two dwarfing genes produced even shorter plants (40.3% in general) and resulted in the shortest distance from spike to flag-leaf ligule. Rht-D1b did not affect the diameter of stems and flag leaf size adversely, while Rht13 narrowed the diameter of stems (except the peduncle) and narrowed flag leaf width. Grain number spike-1 and number of fertile tillers plant-1 was similar between lines with single dwarfing gene (Rht-D1b or Rht13) and tall lines, but less grain number spike-1 was observed in lines with double dwarfing genes. 1000-kernel weight was significantly reduced by Rht13, while Rht-D1b had no significant effect on 1000-kernel weight. In the rainfed winter wheat environments encountered here, Rht13 and Rht-D1b reduced biomass plant-1 by 24.5% and 19.9% and grain yield plant-1 by 25.8% and 25.7%, respectively, but harvest index remained the same as tall lines in both Rht13 and Rht-D1b dwarf lines. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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