Institute of Water Problems

Russia

Institute of Water Problems

Russia
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Makhmudov R.N.,Research Hydrometeorological Institute | Aliev V.A.,AMIR Technical Services LTD | Akhmedov A.A.,Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency | Ramanazanly Z.Z.,Institute of Water Problems
Water Resources | Year: 2017

The morphometric and anthropogenic risk factors of floods in a typical lowland Lower Kura R. are studied. The isolation of the channel from the floodplain is the major cause of floods in the river. The high channel tortuosity makes the flow turbulent. In addition, the high sediment concentration, the turbid and disperse character of the liquid, the gentle bed slope, and the alluvial character of the soil underlying the bed and embankments contribute to the vertical and horizontal dynamics of the channel. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Grippa M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Kergoat L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Boone A.,CNRM GAME | Peugeot C.,CNRS HydroSciences Montpellier Laboratory | And 64 more authors.
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2017

Land surface processes play an important role in the West African monsoon variability. In addition, the evolution of hydrological systems in this region, and particularly the increase of surface water and runoff coefficients observed since the 1950s, has had a strong impact on water resources and on the occurrence of floods events. This study addresses results from phase 2 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP2), carried out to evaluate the capability of different state-of-the-art land surface models to reproduce surface processes at the mesoscale. Evaluation of runoff and water fluxes over the Mali site is carried out through comparison with runoff estimations over endorheic watersheds as well as evapotranspiration (ET) measurements. Three remote-sensing-based ET products [ALEXI, MODIS, and Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM)] are also analyzed. It is found that, over deep sandy soils, surface runoff is generally overestimated, but the ALMIP2 multimodel mean reproduces in situ measurements of ET and water stress events rather well. However, ALMIP2 models are generally unable to distinguish among the two contrasted hydrological systems typical of the study area. Employing as input a soil map that explicitly represents shallow soils improves the representation of water fluxes for the models that can account for their representation. Shallow soils are shown to be also quite challenging for remote-sensing-based ET products, even if their effect on evaporative loss was captured by the diagnostic thermal-based ALEXI. A better representation of these soils, in soil databases, model parameterizations, and remote sensing algorithms, is fundamental to improve the estimation of water fluxes in this part of the Sahel. © 2017 American Meteorological Society.


Getirana A.,NASA | Getirana A.,University of Maryland College Park | Boone A.,Meteo - France | Peugeot C.,CNRS HydroSciences Montpellier Laboratory | And 56 more authors.
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2017

Comparing streamflow simulations against observations has become a straightforward way to evaluate a land surface model's (LSM) ability in simulating water budget within a catchment. Using a mesoscale river routing scheme (RRS), this study evaluates simulated streamflows over the upper Ouémé River basin resulting from 14 LSMs within the framework of phase 2 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP2). The ALMIP2 RRS (ARTS) has been used to route LSM outputs. ARTS is based on the nonlinear Muskingum-Cunge method and a simple deep water infiltration formulation representing water-table recharge as previously observed in that region. Simulations are performed for the 2005-08 period during which ground observations are largely available. Experiments are designed using different ground-based rainfall datasets derived from two interpolation methods: the Thiessen technique and a combined kriging-Lagrangian methodology. LSM-based total runoff (TR) averages vary from 0.07 to 1.97 mm day-1, while optimal TR was estimated as ~0.65 mm day-1. This highly affected the RRS parameterization and streamflow simulations. Optimal Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for LSM-averaged streamflows varied from 0.66 to 0.92, depending on the gauge station. However, individual LSM performances show a wider range. A more detailed rainfall distribution provided by the kriging-Lagrangian methodology resulted in overall better streamflow simulations. The early runoff generation related to reduced infiltration rates during early rainfall events features as one of the main reasons for poor LSM performances. © 2017 American Meteorological Society.

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