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Noubactep C.,University of Gottingen | Noubactep C.,Kultur und Nachhaltige Entwicklung CDD e.V. | Temgoua E.,University of Dschang | Rahman M.A.,University of Gottingen | Rahman M.A.,Institute of Water Modelling
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2012

There are ongoing efforts to render conventional biosand filters (BSF) more efficient for safe drinking water provision. One promising option is to amend BSF with a reactive layer containing metallic iron (Fe 0). The present communication presents some conceptual options for efficient Fe 0-amended BSF in its fourth generation. It is shown that a second fine-sand layer should be placed downwards from the Fe 0-reactive layer to capture dissolved iron. This second fine-sand layer could advantageously contain adsorbing materials (e.g. activated carbons, wooden charcoals). An approach for sizing the Fe 0-reactive layer is suggested based on 3kg Fe 0 per filter. Working with the same Fe 0 load will ease comparison of results with different materials and the scaling up of household BSF to large scale community slow sand filters (SSF). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Rahman M.A.,University of Gottingen | Rusteberg B.,University of Gottingen | Uddin M.S.,University of Gottingen | Uddin M.S.,Institute of Water Modelling | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

This paper describes an integrated approach of site suitability mapping and ranking of the most suitable sites, for the implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects, using spatial multicriteria decision analysis (SMCDA) techniques and mathematical modelling. The SMCDA procedure contains constraint mapping, site suitability analysis with criteria standardization and weighting, criteria overlay by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) combined with weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted averaging (OWA), and sensitivity analysis. The hydrogeological impacts of the selected most suitable sites were quantified by using groundwater flow and transport modelling techniques. Finally, ranking of the selected sites was done with the WLC method. The integrated approach is demonstrated by a case study in the coastal aquifer of North Gaza. Constraint mapping shows that 50% of the total study area is suitable for MAR implementation. About 25% of the total area is "very good" and 25% percent is "good" for MAR, according to the site suitability analysis. Six locations were selected and ranked against six representative decision criteria. Long term (year 2003 to year 2040) groundwater flow and transport simulations were performed to quantify the selected criteria under MAR project operation conditions at the selected sites. Finally, the suitability mapping and hydrogeological investigation recommends that the location of the existing infiltration ponds, constructed near the planned North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant (NGWWTP) is most suitable for MAR project implementation. This paper concludes that mathematical modelling should be combined with the SMCDA technique in order to select the best location for MAR project implementation. Besides MAR project implementation, the generalised approach can be applicable for any other water resources development project that deals with site selection and implementation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.1.3.3.1 | Award Amount: 5.14M | Year: 2010

Collaborative research on flood resilience in urban areas (CORFU) is an interdisciplinary international project that will look at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. Our vision is that this project will use these differences to create synergies that will bring new quality to flood management strategies globally. Through a 4-year collaborative research programme, the latest technological advances will be cross-fertilised with traditional and emerging approaches to living with floods. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian institutions to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future. Flood impacts in urban areas potential deaths, damage to infrastructure and health problems and consequent effects on individuals and on communities and possible responses will be assessed by envisaging different scenarios of relevant drivers: urban development, socio-economic trends and climate changes. The cost-effectiveness of resilience measures and integrative and adaptable flood management plans for these scenarios will be quantified. CORFU is structured in six Work Packages. WP1 will look at drivers that impact on urban flooding. WP2 will enhance methodologies and tools for flood hazard assessment based on urban flood modelling. WP3 will improve, extend and integrate modern methods for flood impact assessment. WP4 will aim to assess and enhance existing flood risk management strategies. WP5 will disseminate the outputs. WP6 will co-ordinate the project.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.3-3 | Award Amount: 11.33M | Year: 2014

The project eartH2Observe brings together the findings from European FP projects DEWFORA, GLOWASIS, WATCH, GEOWOW and others. It will integrate available global earth observations (EO), in-situ datasets and models and will construct a global water resources re-analysis dataset of significant length (several decades). The resulting data will allow for improved insights on the full extent of available water and existing pressures on global water resources in all parts of the water cycle. The project will support efficient and globally consistent water management and decision making by providing comprehensive multi-scale (regional, continental and global) water resources observations. It will test new EO data sources, extend existing processing algorithms and combine data from multiple satellite missions in order to improve the overall resolution and reliability of EO data included in the re-analysis dataset. The usability and operational value of the developed data will be verified and demonstrated in a number of case-studies across the world that aim to improve the efficiency of regional water distribution. The case-studies will be conducted together with local end-users and stakeholders. Regions of interest cover multiple continents, a variety of hydrological, climatological and governance conditions and differ in degree of data richness (e.g. the Mediterranean and Baltic region, Ethiopia, Colombia, Australia, New Zealand and Bangladesh). The data will be disseminated though an open data Water Cycle Integrator portal to ensure increased availability of global water resources information on both regional and global scale. The data portal will be the European contributor to the existing GEOSS water cycle platforms and communities. Project results will be actively disseminated using a combination of traditional methods (workshops, papers, website and conferences) and novel methods such as E-learning courses and webinars that promote the use of the developed dataset.


Kirby J.M.,CSIRO | Ahmad M.D.,CSIRO | Mainuddin M.,CSIRO | Palash W.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

There is increasing concern over falling groundwater levels in some areas of Bangladesh, and there is undoubted overuse of groundwater in the Barind Tract in northwest Bangladesh and around Dhaka. However, the volumes of water availability and use, and hence the sustainability of use, are not well known. We developed monthly water balances for the main regions of Bangladesh to investigate historic trends in water use and availability and possible future trends under changed management to lessen groundwater use by using more surface water for irrigation. Our results show that for many areas the fall in pre-monsoon groundwater levels (at the regional average level) over the last few decades may be largely explained by the continual withdrawal of ever greater volumes of water with the three-fold increase in the area of irrigation. Thus, for many areas, if there were no further increase in the area irrigated by groundwater, the rate of decline in groundwater levels would likely reduce and levels could even attain a new equilibrium at a lower level, implying that current pumping rates could be maintained (subject to the lower groundwater levels being acceptable on environmental, economic and social grounds). Post-monsoon groundwater levels are largely influenced by yearly rainfall variability. Thus, groundwater use in some areas may not be as unsustainable as feared, and policies to reduce groundwater use in such areas may not be as necessary or urgent as thought. However, our analysis is approximate and detailed local studies are required to assess the sustainability of use. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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