Institute of Water Modelling

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Institute of Water Modelling

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Rahman M.T.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Aldosary A.S.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Mortoja M.G.,Institute of Water Modelling
Land | Year: 2017

Over the past several decades, Saudi cities have experienced rapid urban developments and land use and land cover (LULC) changes. These developments will have numerous short- and long-term consequences including increasing the land surface temperature (LST) of these cities. This study investigated the effects of LULC changes on the LST for the eastern coastal city of Dammam. Using Landsat imagery, the study first detected the LULC using the maximum likelihood classification method and derived the LSTs for the years 1990, 2002, and 2014. Using the classified results, it then modeled the future LULC for 2026 using the Cellular Automata Markov (CAM) model. Finally, using three thematic indices and linear regression analysis, it then modeled the LST for 2026 as well. The built-up area in Dammam increased by 28.9% between 1990 and 2014. During this period, the average LSTs for the LULC classes increased as well, with bare soil and built-up area having the highest LST. By 2026, the urban area is expected to encompass 55% of the city and 98% of the land cover is envisioned to have average LSTs over 41°C. Such high temperatures will make it difficult for the residents to live in the area. © 2017 by the authors.

Bhattacharya B.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Islam T.,Institute of Water Modelling | Masud S.,Institute of Water Modelling | Suman A.,University of Canberra | Solomatine D.P.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

Flooding in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh is presented in this paper. A haor is a saucershaped depression, which is used during the dry period (Dec to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (Jun-Nov). Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss. The area is bordering India, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly by the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the flood propagation. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 from DHI) and a two-dimensional model for the haors (based on MIKE 21 from DHI) were developed. In order to characterize flooding in the large area a flood index is proposed, which is computed based on the hydrograph characteristics such as the rising curve gradient, flood magnitude ratio and time to peak. The index was used in characterising flooding in the Haor region. In general, two groups of rivers were identified. The study enabled identifying the hot-spots in the study area with risks from flooding. © 2016 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.1.6-1 | Award Amount: 8.45M | Year: 2011

Political discussions on the European goal to limit global warming to 2C demands that discussions are informed by the best available science on projected impacts and possible benefits. IMPACT2C enhances knowledge, quantifies climate change impacts, and adopts a clear and logical structure, with climate and impacts modelling, vulnerabilities, risks and economic costs, as well as potential responses, within a pan-European sector based analysis. IMPACT2C utilises a range of models within a multi-disciplinary international expert team and assesses effects on water, energy, infrastructure, coasts, tourism, forestry, agriculture, ecosystems services, and health and air quality-climate interactions. IMPACT2C introduces key innovations. First, harmonised socio-economic assumptions/scenarios will be used, to ensure that both individual and cross-sector assessments are aligned to the 2C (1.5C) scenario for both impacts and adaptation, e.g. in relation to land-use pressures between agriculture and forestry. Second, it has a core theme of uncertainty, and will develop a methodological framework integrating the uncertainties within and across the different sectors, in a consistent way. In so doing, analysis of adaptation responses under uncertainty will be enhanced. Finally, a cross-sectoral perspective is adopted to complement the sector analysis. A number of case studies will be developed for particularly vulnerable areas, subject to multiple impacts (e.g. the Mediterranean), with the focus being on cross-sectoral interactions (e.g. land use competition) and cross-cutting themes (e.g. cities). The project also assesses climate change impacts in some of the worlds most vulnerable regions: Bangladesh, Africa (Nile and Niger basins), and the Maldives. IMPACT2C integrates and synthesises project findings suitable for awareness raising and are readily communicable to a wide audience, and relevant for policy negotiations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 5.14M | Year: 2010

Collaborative research on flood resilience in urban areas (CORFU) is an interdisciplinary international project that will look at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. Our vision is that this project will use these differences to create synergies that will bring new quality to flood management strategies globally. Through a 4-year collaborative research programme, the latest technological advances will be cross-fertilised with traditional and emerging approaches to living with floods. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian institutions to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future. Flood impacts in urban areas potential deaths, damage to infrastructure and health problems and consequent effects on individuals and on communities and possible responses will be assessed by envisaging different scenarios of relevant drivers: urban development, socio-economic trends and climate changes. The cost-effectiveness of resilience measures and integrative and adaptable flood management plans for these scenarios will be quantified. CORFU is structured in six Work Packages. WP1 will look at drivers that impact on urban flooding. WP2 will enhance methodologies and tools for flood hazard assessment based on urban flood modelling. WP3 will improve, extend and integrate modern methods for flood impact assessment. WP4 will aim to assess and enhance existing flood risk management strategies. WP5 will disseminate the outputs. WP6 will co-ordinate the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.3-3 | Award Amount: 11.33M | Year: 2014

The project eartH2Observe brings together the findings from European FP projects DEWFORA, GLOWASIS, WATCH, GEOWOW and others. It will integrate available global earth observations (EO), in-situ datasets and models and will construct a global water resources re-analysis dataset of significant length (several decades). The resulting data will allow for improved insights on the full extent of available water and existing pressures on global water resources in all parts of the water cycle. The project will support efficient and globally consistent water management and decision making by providing comprehensive multi-scale (regional, continental and global) water resources observations. It will test new EO data sources, extend existing processing algorithms and combine data from multiple satellite missions in order to improve the overall resolution and reliability of EO data included in the re-analysis dataset. The usability and operational value of the developed data will be verified and demonstrated in a number of case-studies across the world that aim to improve the efficiency of regional water distribution. The case-studies will be conducted together with local end-users and stakeholders. Regions of interest cover multiple continents, a variety of hydrological, climatological and governance conditions and differ in degree of data richness (e.g. the Mediterranean and Baltic region, Ethiopia, Colombia, Australia, New Zealand and Bangladesh). The data will be disseminated though an open data Water Cycle Integrator portal to ensure increased availability of global water resources information on both regional and global scale. The data portal will be the European contributor to the existing GEOSS water cycle platforms and communities. Project results will be actively disseminated using a combination of traditional methods (workshops, papers, website and conferences) and novel methods such as E-learning courses and webinars that promote the use of the developed dataset.

Noubactep C.,University of Gottingen | Noubactep C.,Kultur und Nachhaltige Entwicklung CDD e.V. | Temgoua E.,University of Dschang | Rahman M.A.,University of Gottingen | Rahman M.A.,Institute of Water Modelling
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2012

There are ongoing efforts to render conventional biosand filters (BSF) more efficient for safe drinking water provision. One promising option is to amend BSF with a reactive layer containing metallic iron (Fe 0). The present communication presents some conceptual options for efficient Fe 0-amended BSF in its fourth generation. It is shown that a second fine-sand layer should be placed downwards from the Fe 0-reactive layer to capture dissolved iron. This second fine-sand layer could advantageously contain adsorbing materials (e.g. activated carbons, wooden charcoals). An approach for sizing the Fe 0-reactive layer is suggested based on 3kg Fe 0 per filter. Working with the same Fe 0 load will ease comparison of results with different materials and the scaling up of household BSF to large scale community slow sand filters (SSF). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Dasgupta S.,The World Bank | Huq M.,Development Policy Group | Khan Z.H.,Institute of Water Modelling | Ahmed M.M.Z.,Institute of Water Modelling | And 3 more authors.
Climate and Development | Year: 2014

This paper integrates information on climate-change, hydrodynamic models, and geographic overlays to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas in Bangladesh to larger storm surges and sea-level rise (SLR) by 2050. The approach identifies polders, coastal populations, settlements, infrastructure, and economic activity at risk of inundation, and estimates the damage from storm surge inundation versus the cost of several adaptation measures. A 27-centimetre SLR and 10% intensification of wind speed resulting from global warming suggest that the vulnerable zone increases in size by 69% given a +3-metre inundation depth, and by 14% given a +1-metre inundation depth. Estimates indicate investments including strengthening polders, foreshore afforestation, additional multi-purpose cyclone shelters, cyclone-resistant private housing, and further strengthening of the early warning and evacuation system would cost more than $2.4 billion, with an annual recurrent cost of more than $50 million. These estimates can serve as a prototype in climate negotiations of the adaptation costs of extreme weather events. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Shafiullah M.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Rahman S.M.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Mortoja M.G.,Institute of Water Modelling | Al-Ramadan B.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Power system networks are the largest and most complex systems ever devised by human being. The networks are associated with huge amount of investments where the success of the sector heavily depends on appropriate planning and management. Spatial analysis technologies play very important role in planning, monitoring, and managing of the network by comprehensively considering social, environmental, and economic issues. Spatial analysis, the heart of geographic information systems (GIS) provide an integrated platform for proper management and planning of power systems. The major role of GIS technology includes: (i) developing spatial model for power generating stations, transmission networks, and distribution substations; (ii) determining suitable locations for power generation and distribution stations, and optimal routing of transmission networks; and (iii) integrating renewable energy resources with the planning and management system. Parallel to GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) has introduced new dimensions in spatial research because of its increasing availability with reduced price. The integration of GPS in data measurement techniques made a paradigm shift in (i) monitoring of the power system network with time synchronized data and (ii) finding fault locations as well as taking corrective actions with better accuracy. This paper investigates the evolutionary role of GIS and GPS technologies in different components of power system networks. These technologies are expected to provide a smart and promising platform for integrating virtually all the relevant information and systems required to develop and maintain a sustainable power system networks at local, national, regional, and global levels. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Hossain F.,Tennessee Technological University | Siddique-E-Akbor A.H.M.,Tennessee Technological University | Yigzaw W.,Tennessee Technological University | Shah-Newaz S.,Institute of Water Modelling | And 9 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2014

A National Research Council (NRC) report has popularized the term 'valley of death' to describe the region where research on weather satellites had struggled to reach maturity for societal applications. Researchers share their views on the lessons learned when trying to cross this valley of death for a flood-prone country and stakeholder nation, such as Bangladesh. The researchers share their journey of crossing this valley of death as a set of sequential steps so that they serve as a roadmap for the research community wanting to implement similar applications for developing countries. They have selected satellite radar altimetry, which can measure the river-level dynamics, as a tool for trans-boundary flood forecasting as opposed to satellite remote sensing of precipitation or flood inundation estimation.

Ahmad M.-U.D.,CSIRO | Kirby M.,CSIRO | Islam M.S.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Hossain M.J.,Institute of Water Modelling | Islam M.M.,Institute of Water Modelling
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

Bangladesh has a large and growing population that will demand more food and place greater pressure on resources. Dry season irrigated Boro rice production is important for national food security. Dry season irrigation mainly uses groundwater, but the extent of its use is not well known. We assessed groundwater use and water productivity of Boro in the northwest region of Bangladesh using remote sensing based energy balance modelling, crop classification and secondary statistics. The energy balance modelling shows a large spatial variation in the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from about 325 to 470 mm, with an overall spatial average of 365 mm during dry season. The estimated values of ETa correspond well with independent values from field and regional scale soil and water balance modelling results. From spatial estimates of ETa and effective rainfall, we computed regional net groundwater use for Boro production in 2009 as 2.4 km3. Groundwater is being used unsustainably in some areas, and a spatial time series (1990 to 2010) of pre- and post-monsoon groundwater depth changes in the northwest region of Bangladesh suggests that, with the current level of groundwater use, falling groundwater levels may pose a long term threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in much of the region. Boro water productivity varies from 0.95 to 1.35 kg/m3, allowing the identification of high performing "bright" and low performing "hot" spots and the development of strategies to reduce crop yield/productivity gaps and ensure future food security. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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