Institute of Water Modeling


Institute of Water Modeling

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Jung H.C.,Ohio State University | Hamski J.,Louis Berger Group Inc. | Durand M.,Ohio State University | Alsdorf D.,Ohio State University | And 6 more authors.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2010

The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide global, space-based estimates of water elevation, its temporal change, and its spatial slope in fluvial environments, as well as across lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and floodplains. This paper illustrates the utility of existing remote sensing measurements of water temporal changes and spatial slope to characterize two complex fluvial environments. First, repeat-pass interferometric SAR measurements from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite are used to compare and contrast floodplain processes in the Amazon and Congo River basins. Measurements of temporal water level changes over the two areas reveal clearly different hydraulic processes at work. The Amazon is highly interconnected by floodplain channels, resulting in complex flow patterns. In contrast, the Congo does not show similar floodplain channels and the flow patterns are not well defined and have diffuse boundaries. During inundation, the Amazon floodplain often shows sharp hydraulic changes across floodplain channels. The Congo, however, does not show similar sharp changes during either infilling or evacuation. Second, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements of water elevation are used to derive water slope over the braided Brahmaputra river system. In combination with in situ bathymetry measurements, water elevation and slope allow one to calculate discharge estimates within 2.3% accuracy. These two studies illustrate the utility of satellite-based measurements of water elevation for characterizing complex fluvial environments, and highlight the potential of SWOT measurements for fluvial hydrology. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hossain F.,University of Washington | Maswood M.,University of Washington | Siddique-E-Akbor A.H.,Tennessee Technological University | Yigzaw W.,Tennessee Technological University | And 12 more authors.
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine | Year: 2014

Building on a recent suite of work that has demonstrated theoretical feasibility and operational readiness of a satellite altimeter based flood forecasting system, we recently put a progressively designed altimeter based transboundary flood forecasting system to the ultimate test of real-time operational delivery in Bangladesh. The JASON-2 satellite altimeter, which was in orbit at the time of writing this manuscript, was used as the flagship altimeter mission. This paper summarizes the entire process of designing the system, customizing the workflow, and putting the system in place for complete ownership by the Bangladesh stakeholder agency for a 100 day operational skill test spanning the period of June 1 2013 through Sept. 9, 2013. Correlation for most of the flood warning stations ranged between 0.95 to 0.80 during the 1 day to 8 days lead time range. The RMSE of forecast typically ranged between 0.75m to 1.5m at locations where the danger level relative to the river bed was more than an order higher (i.e., >20m). The RMSE of forecast at the 8 days lead time did not exceed 2m for upstream and mid-stream rivers inside Bangladesh. The RMSE of forecast at the 8 days lead time exceeded 2m at a few estuarine river locations affected by tidal effects, where danger level relative to river bed was smaller (i.e., <20m). Such a satellite altimeter system, such as one based on the JASON-2 altimeter, is now poised to serve the entire inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins as well as 30 or more flood-prone downstream nations currently deprived of real-time flow data from upstream nations. © 2014 IEEE.

Dasgupta S.,The World Bank | Huq M.,Development Policy Group | Khan Z.H.,Institute of Water Modeling | Masud M.S.,Institute of Water Modeling | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environment and Development | Year: 2011

Bangladesh is one of the most flood prone countries in the world. Two thirds of the country is less than 5 m above sea level. Past monsoon flood records indicate that about 21% of the country is subject to annual flooding and an additional 42% is at risk of floods with varied intensity. Although annual regular flooding has traditionally been beneficial, providing nutrient-laden sediments and recharging groundwater aquifers, the country often experiences severe flooding during a monsoon that causes significant damage to crops and properties with adverse impacts on rural livelihoods and production. The 1998 flood inundated two thirds of the land area, resulting in damages and losses of over US$2 billion, or 4.8% of GDP. Climate models suggest increased precipitation, higher transboundary water flows, and sea-level rise will all increase the destructive power of monsoon floods. Using climate change scenarios out to 2050, hydrological and hydrodynamic models, this article estimates an incremental cost to climate-proof roads and railways, river embankments protecting productive agricultural lands, and drainage systems and erosion control measures for major towns of US$2,671 million initially and US$54 million in annual recurrent costs. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

Al Mamunul Haque M.,University of Rajshahi | Jahan C.S.,University of Rajshahi | Mazumder Q.H.,University of Rajshahi | Nawaz S.M.S.,Institute of Water Modeling | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2012

The Rajshahi city is the fourth largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh on the bank of the River Padma (Ganges). Here an upper semi-impervious layer overlies aquifer - the source for large-scale groundwater development. The groundwater resource study using Visual MODFLOW modeling shows that recharge occurs mainly due to infiltration of rainfall and urban return flow at low rate, and water level fluctuates seasonally in response to recharge and discharge. Hydraulic connection between river and aquifer which indicates inflow from high river water levels beyond its boundaries. The total groundwater abstraction in 2004 (15000 million liters) is lower than total input to aquifer reveals an ample potentiality for groundwater development with increasing demand. But groundwater shortage (1000 million liter/year) especially in the vicinity of the River Padma in dry season happens due to its increasing use and fall of river water level resulting in reduced inflows and hence decline in groundwater level. The conjunctive use of surface water-groundwater and its economic use will help for sustainable groundwater supply to avoid adverse impact. © Geol. Soc. India.

Hossain F.,University of Washington | Siddique-E-Akbor A.H.,Tennessee Technological University | Mazumder L.C.,Institute of Water Modeling | Shahnewaz S.M.,Institute of Water Modeling | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Recent work by Biancamaria (Geophysical Research Letters, 2011) has demonstrated the potential of satellite altimetry to forecast incoming transboundary flow for downstream nations by detecting river levels at locations in upstream nations. Using the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) basin as an example, we assessed the operational feasibility of using JASON-2 satellite altimetry for forecasting such transboundary flow at locations further inside the downstream nation of Bangladesh by propagating forecasts derived from upstream (Indian) locations through a hydrodynamic river model. The 5-day forecast of river levels at upstream boundary points inside Bangladesh were used to initialize daily simulation of the hydrodynamic river model and yield the 5-day forecast river level further downstream inside Bangladesh. The forecast river levels were then compared with the 5-day-later 'nowcast' simulation by the river model based on in-situ river level at the upstream boundary points in Bangladesh. Results show that JASON-2 retains good fidelity at 5-day lead forecast with an average RMSE (relative to nowcast) ranging from 0.5 m to 1.5 m and a mean bias (underestimation) of 0.25 m to 1.25 m in river water level estimation. Based on the proof-of-concept feasibility, a 4 month-long capacity building of the Bangladesh flood forecasting agency was undertaken. This facilitated a 20-day JASON-2 based forecasting of flooding during Aug 1, 2012 to Aug 20, 2012 up to a 5 day lead time in a real-time operational environment. Comparison against observed water levels at select river stations revealed an average error of forecast ranging from -0.4 m to 0.4 m and an RMSE ranging from 0.2 m to 0.7 m. In general, this study shows that satellite altimeter such as JASON-2 can indeed be an efficient and practical tool for building a robust forecasting system for transboundary flow. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

Mainuddin M.,CSIRO | Kirby M.,CSIRO | Chowdhury R.A.R.,Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services | Shah-Newaz S.M.,Institute of Water Modeling
Irrigation Science | Year: 2014

Sustaining irrigation is vital for ensuring future food security in the face of population growth and a changing climate in Bangladesh. In this study, a daily soil water balance simulation model was used to estimate the net irrigation requirements of nine crops including Boro rice for the historical period of 1985–2010 and for future climate scenarios of 2030 and 2050 dry and average conditions using the A1B emission scenario. The average net irrigation requirement of Boro rice, the main crop, is 676 mm with temporally averaged spatial variation of 644–779 mm and spatially averaged temporal variation of 570–755 mm for base case planting on clay loam soil. The variations are due to the variation in crop evapotranspiration and rainfall during the cropping period. Changing planting or sowing date affects the net irrigation requirement which for Boro rice is lower in early (October–November) or late planting (January–February). The net irrigation requirement of Boro rice is about twice that required by wheat, maize, potato, tomato and sunflower, three times that of pulses and 5–6 times that required by oilseeds. The impact of climate change on irrigation requirements of Boro rice is small. The average irrigation requirement is projected to increase by a maximum of 3 % for the 2050 dry scenario. For other crops this is projected to increase by 1–5 % depending on the crop and the time of sowing/planting. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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