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Heraklio, Greece

Vakalounakis D.J.,Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation | Doulis A.G.,Institute of Viticulture
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

In early December 2012 and February 2013, severe symptoms of white rust were observed on several commercial crops of the spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cvs. Tahiti and Rembrandt in the Aghia Pelaghia and Elia areas, respectively, of Heraklio, Crete, Greece. Initially, small, chlorotic lesions developed on the upper side of the leaves. As disease progressed, small, glassy white pustules developed on the underside of each leaf, frequently in concentric rings. The pustules were blister-like and oval, irregularly oval, or elongated, ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mm in diameter and up to 3 mm in length. Lesions often coalesced, and the pustules could cover the entire lower leaf surface, rendering them unmarketable. The dome-like epidermis of host tissue covering the white rust pustules ruptured and exposed a white, chalky 'dust' of numerous powdery spores in small, circular to elongate sori. The sporangia were arranged in basipetal chains, were globose to oval, with a smooth wall that was uniformly thick and measured 19.1 ± 1.93 (14.1 to 23.5) μm × 15.3 ± 1.49 (12.9 to 20.0) μm when hydrated. Oospores were absent from the leaves. The morphological characteristics closely resembled those reported for the white rust pathogen, Albugo occidentalis Wilson (4), as well as those of A. occidentalis measured from dried leaves of Chenopodium spp. and Monolepis nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene (Herb. IMI96980, IMI351202, and IMI26345, respectively), kindly loaned by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. Pathogenicity was confirmed by spraying a suspension of 105 sporangia/ml on 10 healthy 20-day-old potted spinach plants of cv. Tahiti. Inoculated plants were covered with polyethylene bags for 3 days and incubated in a growth chamber at 16 to 20°C with a 10-h photoperiod. White rust symptoms were observed on the lower surface of the leaves 10 days after inoculation. Ten control plants sprayed similarly with distilled water and maintained under the same conditions as inoculated plants showed no symptoms. The fungus present on the inoculated plants was morphologically identical to that originally observed on diseased plants, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Genomic DNA from spinach leaf sori was extracted, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, as well as the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COX2) mitochondrial gene, were amplified. PCR products were sequenced and deposited in GenBank (KC676794 and KC676795, respectively). In a BLAST search, the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 and COX2 sequences showed 99% similarities to 684 bp (AJ553900.1) and 599 bp (AY286220.1) sequences of the corresponding A. occidentalis genes in GenBank, respectively. Based on morphological characteristics, pathogenicity tests, and molecular sequencing data, it was concluded that the pathogen on spinach in Crete is A. occidentalis. This is an economically important pathogen of spinach in the United States, that has also has been recorded in Iran (2) and India on a Chenopodium sp. (IMI351202), and in Canada on M. nuttalliana (IMI26345). To our knowledge, this is the first report of this pathogen in Greece, and the first record on spinach in Europe. A voucher specimen has been deposited at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom (Accession No. K(M) 181610). © The American Phytopathological Society.


Burak M.,General Direct Of Agricultural Research And Policy | Ergul A.,Ankara University | Kazan K.,CSIRO | Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

The apple is one of the most important fruit species in the world. Turkey has a diverse and ancient apple germplasm that have played a major role in the domestication of the Malus genus. However, so far locally grown Anatolian apple germplasm has largely been uncharacterized. In this study, 171 local apple (M. domestica Borkh.) accessions originated from eco-geographically diverse regions of Anatolia were studied using 16 SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci, which generated 254 alleles. Of the SSR markers used, the CH04g10 locus showed the highest allele diversity. Relatively high genetic similarities were found between some accessions. The factorial correspondence analysis did not clearly separate different all apple accession groups, suggesting that Anatolian apple accessions are highly intermixed. However, most apple accessions were grouped according to their collection sites in structure analyses. In addition, reflecting the richness of the Anatolian apple germplasm, low numbers of synonymous, and identical accessions were identified among the germplasm. Finally, using the publically available SSR data generated in other studies, we investigated genetic relationships between Anatolian accession groups and European apple accession groups. Our results reported here provide a useful base for future studies aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of wild and cultivated apples from Anatolia and the surrounding regions. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Avramidou E.V.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Avramidou E.V.,Institute of Viticulture | Doulis A.G.,Institute of Viticulture | Aravanopoulos F.A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Gene | Year: 2015

Genetic inheritance and epigenetic inheritance are significant determinants of plant evolution, adaptation and plasticity. We studied inheritance of restriction site polymorphisms by the f-AFLP method and epigenetic DNA cytosine methylation inheritance by the f-MSAP technique. The study involved parents and 190 progeny of a Cupressus sempervirens L. full-sib family. Results from AFLP genetic data revealed that 71.8% of the fragments studied are under Mendelian genetic control, whereas faithful Mendelian inheritance for the MSAP fragments was low (4.29%). Further, MSAP fragment analysis showed that total methylation presented a mean of 28.2%, which was higher than the midparent value, while maternal inheritance was higher (5.65%) than paternal (3.01%). Interestingly de novo methylation in the progeny was high (19.65%) compared to parental methylation. Genetic and epigenetic distances for parents and offspring were not correlated (R2=0.0005). Furthermore, we studied correlation of total relative methylation and CG methylation with growth (height, diameter). We found CG/CNG methylation (N: A, C, T) to be positively correlated with height and diameter, while total relative methylation and CG methylation were positively correlated with height. Results are discussed in light of further research needed and of their potential application in breeding. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Halapija Kazija D.,Institute of Viticulture | Vujevic P.,Institute of Viticulture | JelaCic T.,Institute of Viticulture | Milinovic B.,Institute of Viticulture | And 7 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

'Bistrica' is a widespread plum cultivar in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and has been under cultivation for more than 300 years. Although 'Bistrica' is a well-known and described cultivar, due to frequently observed phenotypic variation it has been reported as a landrace cultivar consisting of many different biotypes. Reliable genotype identification in situ in old traditional orchards can be difficult, so the aim of this study was to determine its SSR profile and to check the homogeneity of its genotype across the region. Nineteen out of 33 analyzed accessions shared the identical genotype at 11 SSR loci having 4-6 alleles per locus. These accessions were sourced partly from nurseries and partly from traditional orchards of rather distant regions of all the countries included in the sampling. This SSR profile might therefore be the reference for 'Bistrica'.


Boz Y.,Institute of Viticulture | Bakir M.,Ankara University | Celikkol B.P.,Ankara University | Kazan K.,CSIRO | And 8 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2011

Southeast Anatolia is located in close proximity to the center of origin of grapes and is an important grape producing area of Turkey. The important location of this region for grape genetic diversity together with its diverse ecological conditions may have led to the development of grape germplasm that is unique to this region. However, so far little has been done to genetically analyze this grape germplasm. In this study, we genetically analyzed 55 grape cultivars originating from six different provinces of this region using 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and a number of ampeolographic characteristics. Based on these analyses, one case of synonymous and four cases of homonymous grape cultivars were identified. The contribution of our results to better characterization of the grape germplasm of the region as well as future germplasm management and breeding efforts is discussed.

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