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Waterford, Ireland

Song W.K.,Yonsei University | Lee S.C.,Yonsei University | Lee E.S.,Yonsei University | Kim C.Y.,Yonsei University | Kim S.S.,Institute of Vision Research
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

PURPOSE. To assess the relationship between macular retinal thickness and volume and age, sex, and refractive error/axial length with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS. One randomly selected eye of 198 consecutive ophthalmically normal subjects (104 men, 94 women) between July 2008 and January 2009, with corrected visual acuities better than 20/30 were included in this cross-sectional study. Complete ophthalmic examination, axial length measurement with a laser interferometer, and macular cube 512×128 scan by SD-OCT were performed. RESULTS. The mean age was 55.6±16.4 years (range, 17-83), average refractive error was -2.17±4.82 (range, -23.50-3.75), and average axial length was 24.73±1.98 mm (range, 21.52-32.51). The central subfield thickness, average inner macular thickness, and overall macular volume were significantly lower in the female subjects (partial correlation: P=0.009, P=0.027, and P= 0.042, respectively). As age increased, average inner macular thickness, average outer macular thickness, overall average macular thickness, and macular volume decreased significantly (partial correlation: P= 0.002, P= 0.002, P= 0.002, and P= 0.000, respectively). Refractive error had no significant influence in partial correlation analysis. Axial length correlated negatively with average outer macular thickness, overall average macular thickness, and macular volume (partial correlation: P= 0.006, P =0.044, and P=0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. In normal subjects, SD-OCT showed that retinal thickness is related to age, sex, and axial length, with regional variations. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Source

Thurnham D.I.,University of Ulster | Nolan J.M.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Howard A.N.,Howard Foundation | Howard A.N.,University of Cambridge | Beatty S.,Institute of Vision Research
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the macular response to three different supplements containing lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) in normal subjects and those with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Materials and Methods: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum xanthophyll concentrations were measured in normal (n = 31) and AMD subjects (n = 32), randomly assigned to: group 1 (20 mg L, 2 mg Z, 0.3 mg MZ), group 2 (10 mg L, 2 mg Z, 10 mg MZ) or group 3 (3 mg L, 2 mg Z, 17 mg MZ). MPOD was measured at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and at 0.25°, 0.5°, 1.0° and 1.75° of eccentricity using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry and serum xanthophylls by HPLC. Results: MPOD increased significantly at all eccentricities in each group (p < 0.05), except at 1.75° in group 3 (p = 0.242). There was no difference in MPOD measurements between AMD and normal subjects, except for group 2, where AMD subjects exhibited a greater response at 1.75° (p = 0.012). Final serum concentrations of MZ were positively and significantly related to final MPOD values at each eccentricity in all subjects. Targeted analysis of those subjects receiving the MZ-containing supplements exhibited stronger relationships between serum MZ concentrations and MPOD at 0.25° in group 3 than group 2; in group 2 all associations were positive, but only significant at 1.75°. Conclusions: Serum concentrations of MZ were strongly correlated with MPOD after 8 weeks of supplementation with the group 3 formulation, but the inclusion of L in the group 2 formulation may result in greater MPOD augmentation across the spatial profile. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Loskutova E.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Nolan J.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Nolan J.,Institute of Vision Research | Howard A.,University of Cambridge | And 2 more authors.

Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP's pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter are important for optimal visual function. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of MP's constituent carotenoids and the same blue light-filtering properties underlie the rationale for its putative protective role for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Supplementation with L, Z and MZ augments MP and enhances visual performance in diseased and non-diseased eyes, and may reduce risk of AMD development and/or progression. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Nolan J.M.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Nolan J.M.,Institute of Vision Research | Akkali M.C.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Loughman J.,Dublin Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Eye Research

This study was designed to investigate the impact of macular carotenoid supplementation on the spatial profile of macular pigment (MP) in subjects where the profile does not exhibit the typical central peak (i.e. peaked MP at foveal epicentre). Thirty one healthy subjects with such atypical MP spatial profiles were assigned to one of three intervention groups: Group 1: (n = 10), 20 mg/day lutein (L), 2 mg/day zeaxanthin (Z); Group 2: (n = 10), 10 mg/day meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), 10 mg/day L, 2 mg/day Z; Group 3: (n = 10), 17 mg/day MZ, 3 mg/day L, 2 mg/day Z. Subjects were instructed to take one capsule daily over an 8-week period. MP at 0.25°, 0.5°, 1°, 1.75°and 3° was measured using customized-heterochromatic flicker photometry at baseline, four weeks and 8 weeks. Over the study period, we report no statistically significant increase in MP at any eccentricity in Group 1 (p > 0.05, for all eccentricities). There was a trend towards an increase in MP at all eccentricities in Group 2, with a significant increase found at 0.25° and 0.50° (p = 0.000 and p = 0.016, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase evident in MP at 0.25° in Group 3 (p = 0.005), but at no other eccentricity (p > 0.05, for all other). We report that the typical central peak of MP can be realised in subjects with atypical spatial profiles, following supplementation with a preparation containing all three macular carotenoids, but not with a supplement lacking MZ. The implications of our findings, in terms of visual performance and/or a (photo)-protective effect, warrant additional study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Loughman J.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Loughman J.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Nolan J.M.,Waterford Institute of Technology | Nolan J.M.,Institute of Vision Research | And 6 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Purpose. To investigate changes in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual performance following supplementation with different macular carotenoid formulations. Methods. Thirty-six subjects (19 male, 17 female; mean ± SD, age 51 ± 13 years) were recruited into this single-masked placebo-controlled study, and were randomly assigned to one of the following three intervention (supplementation) groups: (1) group 1 (20 mg lutein [L] and 2 mg zeaxanthin [Z]); (2) group 2 (10 mg L, 2 mg Z, and 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin [MZ]); and group 3 (placebo). Outcomes measures included visual performance and MPOD response. Data were collected at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. Results. At 3 and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in MPOD was found at all eccentricities (other than the most peripheral 3° location) in group 2 (P <0.05 for all), whereas no significant increase in MPOD was demonstrable at any eccentricity for subjects in groups 1 and 3. Statistically significant improvements in visual performance measures including visual acuity and contrast sensitivity with and without glare were observed for group 2 only. Only mesopic contrast sensitivity at one spatial frequency improved significantly by 6 months (P < 0.05) for group 1. No improvements in any parameters of visual performance were observed for subjects supplemented with placebo (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions. These results suggest that supplementation with all three macular carotenoids potentially offered advantages over preparations lacking MZ, both in terms of MPOD response and visual performance enhancement. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

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