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PubMed | University of Groningen, European Vaccine Initiative EEIG, iQur Ltd, Erasmus University Rotterdam and The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI
Type: Review | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

Due to influenza viruses continuously displaying antigenic variation, current seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated annually to include the latest predicted strains. Despite all the efforts put into vaccine strain selection, vaccine production, testing, and administration, the protective efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccines is greatly reduced when predicted vaccine strains antigenically mismatch with the actual circulating strains. Moreover, preparing for a pandemic outbreak is a challenge, because it is unpredictable which strain will cause the next pandemic. The European Commission has funded five consortia on influenza vaccine development under the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7) in 2013. The call of the EU aimed at developing broadly protective influenza vaccines. Here we review the scientific strategies used by the different consortia with respect to antigen selection, vaccine delivery system, and formulation. The issues related to the development of novel influenza vaccines are discussed.


Gottipati K.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Holthauzen L.M.F.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Ruggli N.,The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI | Choi K.H.,University of Texas Medical Branch
Journal of Virology | Year: 2016

Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor involved in the activation of type I alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) in response to viral infection. Upon viral infection, the IRF3 monomer is activated into a phosphorylated dimer, which induces the transcription of interferon genes in the nucleus. Viruses have evolved several ways to target IRF3 in order to subvert the innate immune response. Pestiviruses, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), target IRF3 for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. This is mediated by the viral protein Npro that interacts with IRF3, but the molecular details for this interaction are largely unknown. We used recombinant Npro and IRF3 proteins and show that Npro interacts with IRF3 directly without additional proteins and forms a soluble 1:1 complex. The full-length IRF3 but not merely either of the individual domains is required for this interaction. The interaction between Npro and IRF3 is not dependent on the activation state of IRF3, since Npro binds to a constitutively active form of IRF3 in the presence of its transcriptional coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP). The results indicate that the Npro-binding site on IRF3 encompasses a region that is unperturbed by the phosphorylation and subsequent activation of IRF3 and thus excludes the dimer interface and CBP-binding site. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology.


Mine J.,Hokkaido University | Tamura T.,Hokkaido University | Mitsuhashi K.,Hokkaido University | Okamatsu M.,Hokkaido University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015

The viral protein Npro is unique to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. After autocatalytic cleavage from the nascent polyprotein, Npro suppresses type I IFN (IFN-a/b) induction by mediating proteasomal degradation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Previous studies found that the Npro-mediated IRF-3 degradation was dependent of a TRASH domain in the C-terminal half of Npro coordinating zinc by means of the amino acid residues C112, C134, D136 and C138. Interestingly, four classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates obtained from diseased pigs in Thailand in 1993 and 1998 did not suppress IFN-α/β induction despite the presence of an intact TRASH domain. Through systematic analyses, it was found that an amino acid mutation at position 40 or mutations at positions 17 and 61 in the N-terminal half of Npro of these four isolates were related to the lack of IRF-3-degrading activity. Restoring a histidine at position 40 or both a proline at position 17 and a lysine at position 61 based on the sequence of a functional Npro contributed to higher stability of the reconstructed Npro compared with the Npro from the Thai isolate. This led to enhanced interaction of Npro with IRF-3 along with its degradation by the proteasome. The results of the present study revealed that amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain of Npro are involved in the stability of Npro, in interaction of Npro with IRF-3 and subsequent degradation of IRF-3, leading to downregulation of IFN-α/β production. © 2015 The Authors.


Garcia-Nicolas O.,The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI | Auray G.,The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI | Sautter C.A.,The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI | Rappe J.C.F.,The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a macrophage (MØ)-tropic virus which is unable to induce interferon (IFN) type I in its target cells. Nevertheless, infected pigs show a short but prominent systemic IFN alpha (IFN-α) response. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is the ability of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) to produce IFN-α in response to free PRRSV virions, independent of infection. Here, we show that the highly pathogenic PRRSV genotype 1 strain Lena is unique in not inducing IFN-α production in pDC, contrasting with systemic IFN-α responses found in infected pigs. We also demonstrate efficient pDC stimulation by PRRSV Lena-infected MØ, resulting in a higher IFN-α production than direct stimulation of pDC by PRRSV virions. This response was strain-independent, required integrin-mediated intercellular contact, intact actin filaments in the MØ and was partially inhibited by an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase. Although infected MØ-derived exosomes stimulated pDC, an efficient delivery of the stimulatory component was dependent on a tight contact between pDC and the infected cells. In conclusion, with this mechanism the immune system can efficiently sense PRRSV, resulting in production of considerable quantities of IFN-α. This is adding complexity to the immunopathogenesis of PRRSV infections, as IFN-α should alert the immune system and initiate the induction of adaptive immune responses, a process known to be inefficient during infection of pigs. © 2016 García-Nicolás, Auray, Sautter, Rappe, McCullough, Ruggli and Summerfield.


PubMed | The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary research | Year: 2016

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreakin Switzerland in 2012 was entirely sequenced, and a functional full-length cDNA clone was constructed. Genetic and antigenic characterization of IVI-1173 revealed the importance of amino acid 90 of the nucleocapsid protein N as part of a conformational epitope. IVI-1173 was not detected by SDOW17, a monoclonal antibody against N widely used to detect PRRSV-infected cells. Substitution of alanine at position 90 of N [N(A

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