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Bruckner L.,Institute of Virology and Immunology
Biologicals | Year: 2013

In Europe, the legal basis for requirements for medicinal products is described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) In the European Union, the Ph. Eur. is supplemented by several guidelines issued by the European Medicines Agency. Immunological veterinary products must comply with the Ph. Eur. monograph on veterinary vaccines and the accompanying texts, as well as specific monographs. The Ph. Eur. includes monographs on canine leptospirosis and bovine leptospirosis vaccines (inactivated). Both monographs require that an immunogenicity test be performed once in the target species during the life of a vaccine. The hamster challenge test is applied for batch potency testing of canine vaccines. Alternatively, serological tests or suitable validated invitro tests to determine the content of one or more antigenic components indicative of protection may be performed. Vaccines for use in cattle are tested in a serological test in guinea pigs. The acceptance criteria in alternative tests are set with reference to a batch of vaccine that has given satisfactory results in the immunogenicity test. At a January 2012 European workshop, the suitability of the hamster potency test was questioned and unanimous agreement was reached that moving toward complete invitro testing is possible and should be promoted. © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source

Summerfield A.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Meurens F.,University of Saskatchewan | Ricklin M.E.,Institute of Virology and Immunology
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2015

The porcine skin has striking similarities to the human skin in terms of general structure, thickness, hair follicle content, pigmentation, collagen and lipid composition. This has been the basis for numerous studies using the pig as a model for wound healing, transdermal delivery, dermal toxicology, radiation and UVB effects. Considering that the skin also represents an immune organ of utmost importance for health, immune cells present in the skin of the pig will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on dendritic cells, which play a central role in the skin immune system as they serve as sentinels in the skin, which offers a large surface area exposed to the environment. Based on a literature review and original data we propose a classification of porcine dendritic cell subsets in the skin corresponding to the subsets described in the human skin. The equivalent of the human CD141+ DC subset is CD1a-CD4-CD172a-CADM1high, that of the CD1c+ subset is CD1a+CD4-CD172a+CADM1+/low, and porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are CD1a-CD4+CD172a+CADM1-. CD209 and CD14 could represent markers of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, either dendritic cells or macrophages. Future studies for example using transriptomic analysis of sorted populations are required to confirm the identity of these cells. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lundin A.,Gothenburg University | Dijkman R.,Institute of Immunobiology | Dijkman R.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Bergstrom T.,Gothenburg University | And 17 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. © 2014 Lundin et al. Source

McCullough K.C.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Bassi I.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Milona P.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Suter R.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids | Year: 2014

Self-Amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA) possesses high potential for increasing antigen load within dendritic cells (DCs). The major aim of the present work was to define how RepRNA delivered by biodegradable, chitosan-based nanoparticulate delivery vehicles (nanogel-Alginate (NGA)) interacts with DCs, and whether this could lead to translation of the RepRNA in the DCs. Although studies employed virus replicon particles (VRPs), there are no reports on biodegradable, nanoparticulate vehicle delivery of RepRNA. VRP studies employed cytopathogenic agents, contrary to DC requirements slow processing and antigen retention. We employed noncytopathogenic RepRNA with NGA, demonstrating for the first time the efficiency of RepRNA association with nanoparticles, NGA delivery to DCs, and RepRNA internalization by DCs. RepRNA accumulated in vesicular structures, with patterns typifying cytosolic release. This promoted RepRNA translation, in vitro and in vivo. Delivery and translation were RepRNA concentration-Dependent, occurring in a kinetic manner. Including cationic lipidswith chitosan during nanoparticle formation enhanced delivery and translation kinetics, but was not required for translation of immunogenic levelsin vivo. This work describes for the first time the characteristics associated with chitosan-nanoparticle delivery of self-Amplifying RepRNA to DCs, leading to translation of encoded foreign genes, namely influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein. ©2014 The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Source

Garcia-Nicolas O.,University of Murcia | Baumann A.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | Baumann A.,University of Bern | Vielle N.J.,Institute of Virology and Immunology | And 6 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

The polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages (MΦ) is essential to understand MΦ function. Consequently, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of IFN-γ (M1), IL-4 (M2) and IFN-β activation of MΦ on the susceptibility to genotype 1 and 2 porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) strains varying in virulence. To this end, monocyte-derived MΦ were generated by culture during 72. h and polarization was induced for another 24. h by addition of IFN-γ, IL-4 or IFN-β. MΦ were infected with a collection of PRRSV isolates belonging to genotype 1 and genotype 2. Undifferentiated and M2 MΦ were highly susceptible to all PRRSV isolates. In contrast, M1 and IFN-β activated MΦ were resistant to low pathogenic genotype 1 PRRSV but not or only partially to genotype 2 PRRSV strains. Interestingly, highly virulent PRRSV isolates of both genotypes showed particularly high levels of infection compared with the prototype viruses in both M1 and IFN-β-treated MΦ (P< 0.05). This was seen at the level of nucleocapsid expression, viral titres and virus-induced cell death. In conclusion, by using IFN-γ and IFN-β stimulated MΦ it is possible to discriminate between PRRSV varying in genotype and virulence. Genotype 2 PRRSV strains are more efficient at escaping the intrinsic antiviral effects induced by type I and II IFNs. Our in vitro model will help to identify viral genetic elements responsible for virulence, an information important not only to understand PRRS pathogenesis but also for a rational vaccine design. Our results also suggest that monocyte-derived MΦ can be used as a PRRSV infection model instead of alveolar MΦ, avoiding the killing of pigs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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