Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2007.1.2.2.2. | Award Amount: 8.22M | Year: 2008
European policy making is hampered by considerable uncertainty about the magnitude and nature of the impacts of long term exposure to air pollution on human health. ESCAPE is a collaboration of more than 30 European cohort studies including some 900,000 subjects. It is aimed at quantifying health impacts of air pollution and at reducing uncertainty. ESCAPE will also test new hypotheses on specific health effects of air pollution. ESCAPE will focus on effects of within-city, within-area and within-country contrasts in air pollution, and so will enable Europe to remain at the cutting edge worldwide for further development and application of methods which have been largely pioneered here. ESCAPE will make measurements of airborne particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in selected regions in Europe. It will measure the chemical composition of the collected particles and it will store samples for future chemical and toxicological analyses. Escape will focus on four categories of cohort studies: 1. Pregnancy outcome and birth cohort studies; 2. Studies on respiratory disease in adults; 3. Studies on cardiovascular disease in adults; 4. Studies on cancer incidence and mortality. ESCAPE responds to a specific FP7 call for a large collaborative project in the Environment and Health program. The call asks for research within existing cohorts among children as well as elderly adults as sensitive groups, and it asks to consider the role of other environmental exposures such as noise, and of biomarkers and gene-environment interactions. Whereas ESCAPE will focus, as requested, on air pollution and to a lesser extent traffic noise exposures, studies have been included which contain a wealth of data on other exposures (e.g., drinking water contaminants), on biomarkers and on genetics. ESCAPE will actively engage stakeholder organisations and policy makers so that results can be swiftly translated to support policy development and implementation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-17-2014 | Award Amount: 7.52M | Year: 2015
The I-MOVE\ Consortium includes European Union (EU) Public Health Institutes, SME and Universities. It aims at measuring and comparing the effectiveness (VE) and impact (VI) of influenza and Pneumococcal vaccines and vaccination strategies a in the elderly population in Europe. The goal is to develop a sustainable platform of primary care practices, hospitals and laboratory networks that share validated methods to evaluate post marketing vaccine performances. The objectives are to identify, pilot test, and disseminate in EU the best study designs to measure, on a real time basis, VE (direct effect) and the VI of vaccination programmes (indirect and overall effect) against laboratory confirmed cases of influenza (types/subtypes) and pneumococcal disease (serotypes), and clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results will allow to understand factors affecting specific VE, the duration of protection of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the interaction between vaccines, the role of repeated vaccinations, the occurrence of serotype replacement (pneumococcus); identify vaccine types and brands with low VE; guide the decision of the WHO committees on vaccine strain selection (influenza); provide robust benefit indicators (VE and VI) and cost benefit and effectiveness results; guide vaccination strategies (schedules, doses, boosters). This EU member state collaboration will respond to questions that require studies based on large sample sizes and sharing of expertise that cannot be achieved by one country alone. It will allow the best methods to be used and results to benefit to all EU countries whatever their current public health achievements. Results will be shared with international partners.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2009.1.2.3.1 | Award Amount: 5.07M | Year: 2009
This proposal has been elaborated by a consortium of 35 partners coming from 27 European countries and including scientists, government institutions and authorities, NGOs and industry. The main goal is to develop a coherent approach to HBM in Europe as requested by ACTION 3 of the EU Environment and Health Action Plan through coordination of ongoing and planned HBM activities. The project will exploit existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe. The consortium will investigate what is needed to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. Work prepared under DG Research and DG Environment activities dealing with development, validation and use of novel biomarkers including non-invasive markers and effect markers will be exploited. Through close collaboration with similar initiatives in the field of Health - such as the EU Health Examination Survey - appropriate economies and efficiencies will be assessed. Key issues such as Ethics and human Biobanks will be addressed. The project will deliver a number of key outputs including: 1. Tested Proofs of Concept and/or Demonstration project assessing the feasibility of a coordinated approach, including strategies for data interpretation & integration with environmental and health data. 2. A rationale and strategy for communication and dissemination of information, results and key messages to all stakeholders from the public to policy makers 3. Training and capacity building will aim to promote knowledge and experience exchange and development in the field of HBM within Europe A common understanding within all parties involved on the potential of HMB in supporting and evaluating current/future policy making (including e.g. REACH) and for environmental health awareness raising will be promoted This project aim is to significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically sound EU HBM programme.
La Ruche G.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010
The three French territories in the Pacific (New Caledonia [NC], French Polynesia [FP] and Wallis and Futuna [WF]) have been affected by an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)2009 during the austral winter of 2009. This wave of influenza-like illness was characterized by a short duration (approximately 8 weeks) and high attack rates: 16-18% in NC and FP, 28% in Wallis and 38% in Futuna. The number of infected patients requiring hospitalization in critical care services and the number of deaths were, respectively, 21 and 10 in NC and 13 and 7 in FP (none in WF). Diabetes, cardiac and pulmonary diseases, obesity in adults, neuromuscular diseases in children, and Oceanic origin were frequently observed among severe cases and deaths. A significant proportion of the population remains susceptible to A(H1N1)2009, making the occurrence of a second wave likely. A state of preparedness and control efforts must be implemented, based on preventive measures (immunization), as well as combined clinical and virological surveillance and health organization. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Duport N.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique | Year: 2012
Background: This study aimed at (i) estimating the 2-year self-reported breast cancer screening coverage rate; and (ii) analyzing the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and healthcare access of women and breast cancer screening (opportunistic or organized) practices. Methods: From a 2006 French health survey, 2056 women aged 50 to 74 years were selected and divided into three groups according to their breast cancer screening practices during the previous 2 years: organized screening, opportunistic screening, or no screening. The three groups were compared according to self-reported sociodemographic status, healthcare access, screening behaviors, and perceived health, using polytomic regression. Results: The 2-year self-reported coverage rate was 75.8%. It was high among women aged 50 to 69 years and lower among older women. Questions relating to medical access (i.e. having consulted a GP in the last 12 months, having consulted a gynecologist in the last 12 months, and having had a Pap smear in the last 3 years) were the variables most commonly associated with a recent mammogram. Women having a regular follow-up by a gynecologist or having had cervical cancer screening within the last three years used organized breast cancer screening more often and used opportunistic breast cancer screening even more often than other women. Conclusion: The study confirmed the key role of gynecologists and general practitioners in encouraging women to have a mammogram. Awareness among healthcare professionals and women of the benefits of organized breast cancer screening compared to opportunistic screening should be sustained and strengthened. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Antoine D.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire |
Che D.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013
The proportion of patients considered to be cured is a key indicator to assess national tuberculosis (TB) control. In France, TB treatment outcome monitoring was implemented in 2007. This article presents national results on treatment outcome among patients with pulmonary TB reported in France in 2009 and explores determinants of potentially unfavourable outcome. Information on treatment outcome was reported for 63% of eligible pulmonary cases of whom 70% had a successful outcome. In a multivariate analysis, potentially unfavourable outcome (17%), compared to treatment success, was significantly associated with being male, born abroad and having lived in France for less than 10 years, being in congregate settings when treatment was initiated, or having a previous history of anti-TB treatment. Enhanced awareness of treatment outcome monitoring is essential to improve the coverage and the quality of information. Earlier diagnosis and improved management of the disease in the elderly may reduce death due to TB. The high proportion of potentially unfavourable outcomes should be further investigated as they may require additional vigilance and/or actions in term of efforts of TB control in some population groups.
Rolland-Cachera M.F.,University of Paris 13 |
Rolland-Cachera M.F.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2011
Childhood obesity is considered a major issue because of its high prevalence and because of its severe consequences on adult health. Prevalence studies are carried out in numerous countries. Analysis of time trends and geographic comparisons are particularly useful, as they may help to identify factors promoting obesity. These studies require adequate definitions of nutritional status and standardized protocols, but in practice, the references, cut-offs and the terminology used vary considerably, and consequently ambiguous information may be found in the literature. Recommendations for the definition of childhood obesity were previously published in 1995 by the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG), but new references appeared later. A clarification of the different definitions was needed. Currently used classifications of nutritional status in children are summarized, and recommendations for the references, cut-offs and terms to be used in different contexts are provided. These new ECOG recommendations should help harmonize the various protocols and improve comparisons between studies. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.
Paty M.C.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2014
During the summer of 2014, all the pre-requisites for autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus are present in southern France: a competent vector, Aedes albopictus, and a large number of travellers returning from the French Caribbean islands where an outbreak is occurring. We describe the system implemented for the surveillance of chikungunya and dengue in mainland France. From 2 May to 4 July 2014, there were 126 laboratory-confirmed imported chikungunya cases in mainland France.
La Ruche G.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2010
In September 2010, two cases of autochthonous dengue fever were diagnosed in metropolitan France for the first time. The cases occurring in Nice, southeast France, where Aedes albopictus is established, are evidence of dengue virus circulation in this area. This local transmission of dengue calls for further enhanced surveillance, active case finding and vector control measures to reduce the spread of the virus and the risk of an epidemic.
Semaille C.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2013
We evaluated prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among prison inmates in France in 2010, in a cross-sectional single-day study based on a two-stage design. Sampling favoured larger establishments and included all types of prisons. Establishments were stratified by geographical region. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification of the total population of inmates in France. From 60,975 inmates in all 188 prisons on the sampling day, 2,154 were selected from 27 prisons, and 1,876 questionnaires completed. HIV prevalence was estimated at 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-4.2), 2.6% (95% CI: 0.7-8.8) in women and 2.0% (95% CI: 0.9-4.3) in men; 75% of inmates were receiving treatment for HIV. HCV prevalence was estimated at 4.8% (95% CI: 3.5-6.5) and was higher for women (11.8%; 95% CI: 8.5-16.1) than men (4.5%; 95% CI: 3.3-6.3). Almost half of HCV-infected inmates had chronic hepatitis C and 44% were receiving or had received treatment. HIV and HCV prevalence was six times higher than in the general population, and 2.5% of inmates had viraemic hepatitis C. The moment of incarceration provides an ideal opportunity for testing and treating, limiting spread of HCV and improving patients' prognosis.