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Raman R.,Charles Sturt University | Taylor B.,Charles Sturt University | Marcroft S.,Marcroft Grains Pathology | Stiller J.,University of Queensland | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is one of the most important diseases of oilseed and vegetable crucifiers worldwide. The present study describes (1) the construction of a genetic linkage map, comprising 255 markers, based upon simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequence-related amplified polymorphism, sequence tagged sites, and EST-SSRs and (2) the localization of qualitative (race-specific) and quantitative (race non-specific) trait loci controlling blackleg resistance in a doubled-haploid population derived from the Australian canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars Skipton and Ag-Spectrum using the whole-genome average interval mapping approach. Marker regression analyses revealed that at least 14 genomic regions with LOD ≥ 2. 0 were associated with qualitative and quantitative blackleg resistance, explaining 4. 6-88. 9 % of genotypic variation. A major qualitative locus, designated RlmSkipton (Rlm4), was mapped on chromosome A7, within 0. 8 cM of the SSR marker Xbrms075. Alignment of the molecular markers underlying this QTL region with the genome sequence data of B. rapa L. suggests that RlmSkipton is located approximately 80 kb from the Xbrms075 locus. Molecular marker-RlmSkipton linkage was further validated in an F 2 population from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. Our results show that SSR markers linked to consistent genomic regions are suitable for enrichment of favourable alleles for blackleg resistance in canola breeding programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Yang S.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li L.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers | Pei Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li C.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 7 more authors.

The effects of humic acid (HA) on copper (Cu(II)) adsorption onto few-layer reduced graphene oxide (FRGO) and few-layer graphene oxide (FGO) were investigated using a batch equilibration method, micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The results showed that HA was adsorbed on FRGO through π-π interaction. The adsorbed HA introduced O-containing functional groups and negative charges to FRGO surfaces, increasing Cu(II) adsorption through chemical complexation and electrostatic attraction. In contrast, HA was adsorbed onto FGO mainly through polar interactions, due to its rich O-containing functional groups. The adsorbed HA had little effect on Cu(II) adsorption onto FGO because the shielding effect of HA on Cu(II) adsorption was offset by newly introduced adsorption sites of HA on FGO. EXAFS results suggested that Cu(II) was adsorbed on FRGO and FGO mainly through the coordination with their O-containing functional groups. When HA was added at pH 4.0 and 6.0, more Cu(II) was adsorbed on HA-coated FRGO. At pH 8.0, a portion of Cu(II) in solution precipitated on FRGO surface, while the presence of HA led to the formation of FRGO-HA-Cu ternary surface complexes instead of Cu(II) precipitation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Pei Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yang S.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li L.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers | Li C.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution

Effects of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) on the adsorption of sulfathiazole (STZ) and tylosin (T) to peat and soil were investigated using a batch equilibration method. Results show that Cu suppressed STZ adsorption onto peat and soil at pH < 5.0 because of the electrostatic competition, while increased STZ adsorption at pH > 5.0 due to the formation of STZ-Cu complexes and/or Cu bridge. In contrast, Al only decreased STZ adsorption at pH < 6.0, and exerted slight effect on STZ adsorption at >6.0. As for T, both Cu and Al suppressed its adsorption over the entire pH range owing to three reasons: 1) electrostatic competition between Cu/Al and T+; 2) Cu/Al adsorption made the soil and peat surface less negatively charged, which was unfavorable for T+ adsorption; 3) the shrunken pore size of peat and soil retarded the diffusion of large-sized T into these pores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang X.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers | Wang X.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers | Chen N.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers | Liu Z.,Institute of Vegetables and Flowers
Scientia Horticulturae

Nineteen winter squash varieties were investigated to improve the understanding of pectic substance accumulation during fruit growth and to explore differences among cultivars. The results showed that there were significant differences in pectin content among varieties (P < 0.05). Some Cucurbita maxima varieties were better sources of pectin, in which total pectin (TP) reached 2.47% of fresh wt. Acid soluble pectin (ASP) was the main fraction of pectin in winter squash, and water soluble pectin (WSP) and oxalate soluble pectin (OSP) were minor components of TP. WSP and OSP increased during fruit growth while ASP and TP first increased and then decreased during fruit growth, peaking at different times for early and mid to late maturity varieties. TP differed between species and maturity classes; TP in C. maxima was about 1.5 times that in C. moschata (P < 0.05). Likewise, TP was 2.3 times higher in early maturity varieties than that in mid to late maturity varieties (P < 0.05). © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

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