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Liu R.,Peking University | Liu S.C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Cicerone R.J.,National Academy of science | Cicerone R.J.,University of California at Irvine | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2015

Significant increases of heavy precipitation and decreases of light precipitation have been reported over widespread regions of the globe. Global warming and effects of anthropogenic aerosols have both been proposed as possible causes of these changes. We examine data from urban and rural meteorological stations in eastern China (1955–2011) and compare them with Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data (1979–2007) and reanalysis data in various latitude zones to study changes in precipitation extremes. Significant decreases in light precipitation and increases in heavy precipitation are found at both rural and urban stations, as well as low latitudes over the ocean, while total precipitation shows little change. Characteristics of these changes and changes in the equatorial zone and other latitudes suggest that global warming rather than aerosol effects is the primary cause of the changes. In eastern China, increases of annual total dry days (28 days) and ≥10 consecutive dry days (36%) are due to the decrease in light precipitation days, thereby establishing a causal link among global warming, changes in precipitation extremes, and higher meteorological risk of floods and droughts. Further, results derived from the GPCP data and reanalysis data suggest that the causal link exists over widespread regions of the globe. © 2015, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liu R.,Peking University | Liu S.C.,Academia Sinica, China | Cicerone R.J.,National Academy of science | Cicerone R.J.,University of California at Irvine | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2015

In his comments, Wang cites a number of works to dispute the conclusion in our previous work, which attributes the observed decreases/increases in light/heavy precipitation in eastern China primarily to global warming rather than the regional aerosol effect. However, most of the cited works (admittedly, including our previous work), employ correlation analysis, which has little bearing on the cause–effect relationship. Theoretical analyses and/or modeling studies are needed to ascertain the cause–effect relationship. We argue that theoretical analyses and modeling results show that global warming is the primary cause of the widely observed phenomena of suppression of light precipitation and enhancement of heavy precipitation across the globe, including in eastern China. © 2015, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li J.,Peking University | Liu R.,Peking University | Liu S.C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu S.C.,National Central University | And 3 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2016

A new method has been developed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sunshine duration (SSD). Retrieved AODs from SSD at the six stations in northern China in 2003-2005 agree reasonably well with AODs retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations near the six stations. Values and trends in AOD retrieved from SSD in Beijing and Tianjin in the period 1961-2005 also agree with those retrieved from solar radiation and visibility. These agreements allow the retrieval of credible upper and lower limits for anthropogenic AODs from SSD at the six stations during 1961-2005. The trends in anthropogenic AODs are approximately a factor of 3 to 5 lower than the trends in emissions of gas-phase precursors of aerosols in 1973-2005, implying a significant sublinear relationship between the level of aerosols and emissions of their gas phase precursors. This finding has important implications for formulating a control strategy for PM2.5 or haze pollution in northern China. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Fang P.,Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration | Zhao B.,Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration | Lu X.,Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration | Liang X.,Institute of Urban Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration | Tang J.,Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2013

With the radiosondage data from Fuzhou Weather Station, the characteristics of the wind profiles affected by landed typhoons in Fuzhou area were studied. Totally 91 wind profiles were obtained, which involved 15 typhoons that severely affected Fuzhou area during the year of 2005-2009. The gradient wind speed and the corresponding levels were first obtained, which were then used by the power law to fit the wind profiles below the gradient wind level. Exponential index and wind speed ratio between the surface wind speed at 10m height and the gradient wind speed were calculated. Results show that the mean value of the exponential index is 0.43, and the mean value of the wind speed ratio is 0. 12. The exponential index decreases and the wind speed ratio increases with the increasing of the gradient wind level. The wind speed ratio decays in an exponential way with the increasing of the exponential index. Then, the characteristics of the wind profiles were analyzed by considering the variation of the distance between Fuzhou Weather Station and the typhoon center during the landfall process.

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