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Wang H.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Sun J.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Fan S.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | Huang X.-Y.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

An indirect radar reflectivity assimilation scheme has been developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting model three-dimensional data assimilation system (WRF 3D-Var). This scheme, instead of assimilating radar reflectivity directly, assimilates retrieved rainwater and estimated in-cloud water vapor. An analysis is provided to show that the assimilation of the retrieved rainwater avoids the linearization error of the Z-qr (reflectivity-rainwater) equation. A new observation operator is introduced to assimilate the estimated in-cloud water vapor. The performance of the scheme is demonstrated by assimilating reflectivity observations into the Rapid Update Cycle data assimilation and forecast system operating at Beijing Meteorology Bureau. Four heavy-rain-producing convective cases that occurred during summer 2009 in Beijing, China, are studied using the newly developed system. Results show that on average the assimilation of reflectivity significantly improves the short-term precipitation forecast skill up to 7 h. Adiagnosis of the analysis fields of one case shows that the assimilation of reflectivity increases humidity, rainwater, and convective available potential energy in the convective region. As a result, the analysis successfully promotes the developments of the convective system and thus improves the subsequent prediction of the location and intensity of precipitation for this case. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Yang P.,China Meteorological Administration Training Center | Ren G.,National Climate Center | Liu W.,Institute of Urban Meteorology
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

An hourly dataset of automatic weather stations over Beijing Municipality in China is developed and is employed to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban heat island intensity (UHII) over the built-up areas.Atotal of 56 stations that are located in the built-up areas [inside the 6th Ring Road (RR)] are considered to be urban sites, and 8 stations in the suburban belts surrounding the built-up areas are taken as reference sites. The reference stations are selected by using a remote sensing method. The urban sites are further divided into three areas on the basis of the city RRs. It is found that the largest UHII generally takes place inside the 4th RR and that the smallest ones occur in the outer belts of the built-up areas, between the 5th RR and the 6th RR, with the areas near the northern and southern 6th RR experiencing the weakest UHI phenomena. On a seasonal basis, the strongest UHII generally occurs in winter and weak UHII is dominantly observed in summer and spring. The UHII diurnal variations for each of the urban areas are characterized by a steadily strong UHII stage from 2100 local solar time (LST) to 0600 LST and a steadily weak UHII stage from 1100 to 1600 LST, with the periods 0600-1100 LST and 1600-2100 LST experiencing a swift decline and rise, respectively. UHII diurnal variation is seen throughout the year, but the steadily strong UHII stage at night is longer (shorter) and the steadily weak UHII stage during the day is shorter (longer) during winter and autumn (summer and spring). © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Hu H.,Institute of Urban Meteorology
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2014

An algorithm was developed for converting radar data from matrix format into polygons that can be easily visualized, processed, and analyzed using Geographic Information Systems. Spatial operators can be used to overlap radar polygons with land surface features represented by points, lines, and polygons to meet the demands of severe weather identification and tracking and risk recognition. Application and testing of the algorithm demonstrate that the converted radar polygons are suitable for use in weather modification, risk assessments of flash floods in urban areas, and the identification of lightning activity for lightning risk recognition, all of which are essential in real-time severe weather monitoring and warning. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Hu H.,Institute of Urban Meteorology
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2015

The rainfall data of 20 rain gauge stations are used for analysis on the spatiotemporal characteristics of rainstorm-induced hazards in Beijing. A local model used to calculate rainstorm hazards index values (RHIVs) has been developed to reflect the degree of rainstorm-induced hazards. The Mann-Kendall test on the RHIVs series recognizes 1984 as the changepoint in the series, which is shortly after the beginning of a rapid urban expansion period in 1981. The RHIV trend analysis reveals that the trends indices of all stations are negative before 1984 but mostly positive after 1984. Although the climate in north China shows drought conditions, and the annual rainfalls have decreased in recent years, no relationship is implied to a reduction in rainstorm-induced hazards. By using the lognormal distribution model, the probability analysis on the RHIVs of 20 stations indicates that very extreme precipitation occurred in increasing frequency after 1984. Moreover, the estimated spatial distributions of 100-, 150-, and 200-mm daily rainfall exceedance probabilities (EPs) indicate that these EPs have increased mainly in the urban areas and northward, which are the downwind of the summer monsoon, whereas the EPs to the south of the urban areas have decreased since 1984. Such spatiotemporal characteristics of the RHIVs can be attributed to modification of precipitation by the changed land use and land cover in urban areas. Moreover, the urban-induced rainfall downwind of the urban areas enhanced the rain intensity and rain rate, which led to an increase in RHIVs and contributed to the frequent occurrences of flash floods in Beijing metropolis. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.

Meng C.,Institute of Urban Meteorology
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems | Year: 2015

An integrated urban land model (IUM) was developed based on the Common Land Model (CoLM). A whole layer soil evaporation parameterization scheme was developed to improve soil evaporation simulation especially in arid areas. For the urban underlying surface, the energy and water balance model were modified; urban land parameters such as the anthropogenic heat (AH), albedo, surface roughness length, imperious surface evaporation etc. were also reparameterized. IUM was validated and compared with CoLM and the urbanized high-resolution land data assimilation system (u-HRLDAS) in single and regional scale. The validation results indicate that IUM can improve the simulation of land surface parameters and land-atmosphere interaction fluxes. © 2015. The Authors.

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