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Antwerpen, Belgium

The Institute of Tropical Medicine , previously known as Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine is located in Antwerp, Belgium. ITM is one of the world's leading institutes for training and research in tropical medicine and the organisation of health care in developing countries. It also delivers outpatient, clinical and preventive services in tropical pathologies and sexually transmitted diseases. The institute has a strong reputation in research, travel medicine, public health issues, neglected tropical diseases. Peter Piot and colleagues at the institute were the first to demonstrate that AIDS was a tropical African disease. ITM has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a reference centre for AIDS research. ITM also is a national and international reference centre for a series of tropical diseases.At ITM, some 400 scientists and technicians do research on pathogens, patients and populations. Yearly, an average of 500 medical doctors, nurses and scientists follow advanced courses; some 120 young researchers are completing their PhD. Each year, the medical services handle around 35 000 consultations. The website www.travelhealth.be services more than 100 000 visitors a year.More than 75% of its publications appear in the top-25% of journals in its field. ITM also carries out an extensive capacity strengthening program in developing countries, and is part of a large network of institutions in Africa, South America and Asia. Wikipedia.

Palomino J.C.,Institute of Tropical Medicine
Future Microbiology | Year: 2012

TB persists as a global epidemic with high morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. It is the only infectious disease ever declared as a global emergency by the WHO. The HIV pandemic and the emergence of drug resistance represent two additional obstacles to better control of the disease. Important progress has been made in the last decade in TB diagnostics. Major needs still exist, such as the availability of a real point-of-care test, a better diagnosis of TB in immune-compromised populations and in children, and the possibility to predict progression to disease in latently infected people. This review will summarize the current developments in TB diagnostics and the perspectives for future developments in the field.

Guzman M.G.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Harris E.,University of California at Berkeley
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Summary Dengue viruses have spread rapidly within countries and across regions in the past few decades, resulting in an increased frequency of epidemics and severe dengue disease, hyperendemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many tropical countries, and autochthonous transmission in Europe and the USA. Today, dengue is regarded as the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease of human beings. Importantly, the past decade has also seen an upsurge in research on dengue virology, pathogenesis, and immunology and in development of antivirals, vaccines, and new vector-control strategies that can positively impact dengue control and prevention. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Gryseels B.,Institute of Tropical Medicine
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease, caused by blood-dwelling worms of the genus Schistosoma. The main human species are S mansoni (occurring in Africa and South America) and S japonicum (South and East Asia) causing intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, and S haematobium (Africa) causing urinary schistosomiasis. Severe symptoms develop in predilected people with heavy and long-standing infections. Acute schistosomiasis, a flulike syndrome, is a regular finding in travel clinics. Although prevalences can be high, most infected people show limited, intermittent, or aspecific symptoms. The diagnosis of schistosomiasis relies on microscopic examination of stools or urine, serologic tests, and imaging. Praziquantel is the drug of choice, active against all species in a single or a few oral doses. Current control strategies consist mainly of preventive therapy in communities or groups at risk. © 2012.

Rachon D.,Institute of Tropical Medicine
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes | Year: 2012

According to the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (AE&PCOS), the main feature of PCOS is clinical hyperandrogenism or laboratory hyperandrogenaemia. Therefore, in diagnosing PCOS one must always exclude other causes of androgen excess. In a woman with hyperandrogenism, the diagnosis of PCOS can usually be made according to the patient's history and careful clinical examination. Signs of mild hyperandrogenaemia usually start after the menarche and cycles continue to be anovulatory in adult life. Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) can be another cause of hyperandrogenism with oligomenorrhea. This can be diagnosed in a patient with elevated basal or ACTH stimulated serum 17OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels or in a case of a significant decrease in serum testosterone (TST) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) in a two day dexamethasone suppression test. Cushing's disease (ACTH producing pituitary adenoma) is a rare cause of hyperandrogenaemia in women with recent onset of hyperandrogenism. However, it must always be taken into the consideration in a patient with accompanying signs of hypercortisolism. It can usually be excluded by performing an overnight dexamethasone suppression test or the measurement of 24 h urinary free cortisol levels. Severe signs of hyperandrogenism which lead to virilization should always lead to the exclusion of androgen secreting tumors of ovarian or adrenal origin. These are very rare but should be always taken into the account in a patient with recent onset of severe signs of androgen excess and very high serum androgen levels. Mild signs of hyperandrogenaemia in a woman with recent oligomenorrhea should always lead to the exclusion of hyperprolactinaemia. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

da Silva P.E.A.,Grande Rio University | Palomino J.C.,Institute of Tropical Medicine
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Declared as a global emergency in 1993 by the WHO, its control is hampered by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, two key drugs in the treatment of the disease. More recently, severe forms of drug resistance such as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB have been described. After the discovery of several drugs with anti-TB activity, multidrug therapy became fundamental for control of the disease. Major advances in molecular biology and the availability of new information generated after sequencing the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis increased our knowledge of the mechanisms of resistance to the main anti-TB drugs. Better knowledge of the mechanisms of drug resistance in TB and the molecular mechanisms involved will help us to improve current techniques for rapid detection and will also stimulate the exploration of new targets for drug activity and drug development. This article presents an updated review of the mechanisms and molecular basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. It also comments on the several gaps in our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance to the main classical and new anti-TB drugs and briefly discusses some implications of the development of drug resistance and fitness, transmission and pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

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