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Saenphoom P.,Institute of Bioscience | Liang J.B.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Ho Y.W.,Institute of Bioscience | Rosfarizan M.,University Putra Malaysia
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value (TMEn) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

PubMed | Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2015

This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P<0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS.

Juraimi A.S.,Technical University of Madrid | Begum M.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Mohd Yusof M.N.,Technical University of Madrid | Man A.,MARDI
Plant Protection Quarterly | Year: 2010

Field experiments have been conducted at the MARDI Seberang Perai Research Station for two seasons: main season 2005/2006 (October - February) and off-season 2006 (March - September) to determine the efficacy of herbicides in controlling weeds and their subsequent effect on rice productivity. Ten herbicides widely used and available in the market have been evaluated singly, as mixtures and as sequential applications in direct seeded rice fields during critical period of weed competition under minimal water conditions of less than 2 cm water depth. In main season the hierarchical position of the four dominant weed species out of 10 species were Fimbristylis milliaceae > Lndwigia hyssopifolia > Leptochloa chinensis > Echinochloa crus-galli, this was completely reverse to that of off-season where Echinochloa crus-galli > Leptochloa chinensis > Fimbristylis milliaceae > Limnocharis flava. Seven of the eighteen treatments over the two cropping seasons showed better broad spectrum weed control, increased grain yields and better yield component indicators. Due to variation of the dominant weed infestation between seasons the potential treatments were pretilachlor followed by bentazon/MCPA (T2), cyhalofop-butyl + bensulfuron followed by bentazon/ MCPA (T4), bispyribac-sodium followed by bentazon/MCPA (T6), benthiocarb/ propanil followed by bentazon/MCPA (T8), penoxsulam + benthiocarb followed by bentazon/MCPA (T10), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl/safener + benthiocarb/ propanil followed by bentazon/MCPA (T12) and quinclorac + benthiocarb/propanil followed by bentazon/MCPA (T14) in main season and Pretilachlor followed by bentazon/MCPA (T2), bispyribac-sodium followed by bentazon/MCPA (T6) and penoxsulam + benthiocarb followed by bentazon/MCPA (T10) in off-season. Rice yield losses due to weed competition in unweeded treatments were 60% in main season and 54% in off-season. This experiment showed that sequential herbicide applications at the critical period of weed competition would give a better result compared to a single herbicide application.

Najafi P.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Soleimani A.F.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Goh Y.M.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Goh Y.M.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2016

Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well-being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P = 0.0005), CP (P = 0.0002), and OVT (P = 0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Najafi P.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Soleimani A.F.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Kashiani P.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

The aim of the current study was to determine the physiological response to feed restriction in female broiler breeders using a range of conventional and novel indicators. One hundred female breeders were subjected to one of five feeding regimens from d 28 to 42 as follows (i) ad libitum feeding (AL), (ii-v) 75, 60, 45, and 30% of ad libitum feed intake. Blood heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR), and plasma circulating corticosterone (CORT), ghrelin (GHR), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) and serum acute phase proteins (APP) concentrations together with brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 level were measured. The results showed a significant effect of feed restriction on blood HLR and plasma CORT, GHR, 5-HT, DA, and brain HSP 70 levels. However, feed restriction had no effect on serum levels of APP of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and ceruloplasmin. Serum levels of 5-HT and GHR varied curvilinearly with the feed restriction level. The relationship between brain HSP 70 and level of feed restriction was negligible. However, significant linear relationships between HLR, CORT, DA, and the level of feed restriction were noted. Thus, these 3 parameters appear to represent a straight forward relation with severity of feed restriction. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Soleimani A.F.,3400 UPM Serdang | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Omar A.R.,3400 UPM Serdang | Raha A.R.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Domestic animals have been modified by selecting individuals exhibiting desirable traits and culling the others. To investigate the alterations introduced by domestication and selective breeding in heat stress response, 2 experiments were conducted using Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), village fowl (VF), and commercial broilers (CB). In experiment 1, RJF, VF, and CB of a common chronological age (30 d old) were exposed to 36 ± 1°C for 3 h. In experiment 2, RJF, VF, and CB of common BW (930 ± 15 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in experiment 1. Heat treatment significantly increased body temperature, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and plasma corticosterone concentration in CB but not in VF and RJF. In both experiments and irrespective of stage of heat treatment, RJF showed lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, higher plasma corticosterone concentration, and higher heat shock protein 70 expression than VF and CB. It can be concluded that selective breeding for phenotypic traits in the domestication process has resulted in alterations in the physiology of CB and concomitantly the ability to withstand high ambient temperature compared with RJF and VF. In other words, domestication and selective breeding are leading to individuals that are more susceptible to stress rather than resistant. It is also apparent that genetic differences in body size and age per se may not determine breed or strain variations in response to heat stress. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Soleimani A.F.,3400 UPM Serdang | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Omar A.R.,3400 UPM Serdang | Raha A.R.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

This study aimed to determine the effect of neonatal feed restriction on plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in aged male Japanese quail subjected to acute heat stress. Equal numbers of chicks were subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). At 21 (young) and 270 (aged) d of age, birds were exposed to 43 ± 1°C for 1 h. Blood and hippocampus samples were collected to determine CORT and Hsp 70 and GR expressions before heat stress and following 1 h of heat stress, 1 h of post-heat stress recovery, and 2 h of post-heat stress recovery. With the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, we examined the hippocampal expression of GR and Hsp 70 and CORT. The GR expression of the young birds increased following heat stress and remained consistent throughout the period of recovery. Conversely, no significant changes were noted on GR expression of aged birds. Although both young and aged birds had similar CORT before and during heat stress, the latter exhibited greater values following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Within the young group, feeding regimens had no significant effect on Hsp 70 expression. However, neonatal feed restriction improved Hsp 70 expression in aged birds. Neonatal feed restriction, compared with the AL group, resulted in higher CORT on d 21 but the converse was noted on d 270. Neonatal feed restriction appears to set a robust reactive hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal response allowing the development of adaptive, healthy, and resilient phenotypes in aged quail as measured by a higher hippocampal Hsp 70 expression along with lower CORT. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Omidvar V.,University Putra Malaysia | Omidvar V.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Abdullah S.N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdullah S.N.A.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2010

The 1,053-bp promoter of the oil palm metallothionein gene (so-called MSP1) and its 5′ deletions were fused to the GUS reporter gene, and analysed in transiently transformed oil palm tissues. The full length promoter showed sevenfold higher activity in the mesocarp than in leaves and 1.5-fold more activity than the CaMV35S promoter in the mesocarp. The 1,053-bp region containing the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) gave the highest activity in the mesocarp, while the 148-bp region was required for minimal promoter activity. Two positive regulatory regions were identified at nucleotides (nt) -953 to -619 and -420 to -256 regions. Fine-tune deletion of the -619 to -420 nt region led to the identification of a 21-bp negative regulatory sequence in the -598 to -577 nt region, which is involved in mesocarp-specific expression. Gel mobility shift assay revealed a strong interaction of the leaf nuclear extract with the 21-bp region. An AGTTAGG core-sequence within this region was identified as a novel negative regulatory element controlling fruit-specificity of the MSP1 promoter. Abscisic acid (ABA) and copper (Cu 2+) induced the activity of the promoter and its 5′ deletions more effectively than methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and ethylene. In the mesocarp, the full length promoter showed stronger inducibility in response to ABA and Cu 2+ than its 5′ deletions, while in leaves, the -420 nt fragment was the most inducible by ABA and Cu 2+. These results suggest that the MSP1 promoter and its regulatory regions are potentially useful for engineering fruit-specific and inducible gene expression in oil palm. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Omidvar V.,University Putra Malaysia | Omidvar V.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Abdullah S.N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdullah S.N.A.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone involved in the abiotic stress resistance in plants. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) binding factors play significant roles in the plant development and response to abiotic stresses, but none so far have been isolated and characterized from the oil palm. Two ABA-responsive cDNA clones, named EABF and EABF1, were isolated from the oil palm fruits using yeast one-hybrid system. The EABF had a conserved AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain (DNA-BD) and a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS). No previously known DNA-BD was identified from the EABF1 sequence. The EABF and EABF1 proteins were classified as DREB/CBF and bZIP family members based on the multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Both proteins showed ABRE-binding and transcriptional activation properties in yeast. Furthermore, both proteins were able to trans-activate the down-stream expression of the LacZ reporter gene in yeast. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that in addition to the ABRE sequence, both proteins could bind to the DRE sequence as well. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of EABF was induced in response to the ABA in the oil palm fruits and leaves, but not in roots, while the EABF1 was constitutively induced in all tissues. The expressions of both genes were strongly induced in fruits in response to the ABA, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, indicating that the EABF and EABF1 might act as connectors among different stress signal transduction pathways. Our results indicate that the EABF and EABF1 are novel stress-responsive transcription factors, which are involved in the abiotic stress response and ABA signaling in the oil palm and could be used for production of stress-tolerant transgenic crops. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hossain M.D.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Hanafi M.M.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Jol H.,University Putra Malaysia | Jamal T.,University Putra Malaysia
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Dry matter and nutrient partitioning of different kenaf varieties grown on sandy Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS) soils were investigated. The experiment was conducted under a shade house condition. Five kenaf varieties, V36, G4, KK60, HC2 and HC95 were grown in pots, replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Plants were partitioned into roots, stems, and leaves and the dry weights were recorded at harvesting time. The dry matter accumulation differed significantly among varieties. Total biomasses for the different varieties ranged from 56.19g to 63.33g. Stem accounted for the greatest proportion of dry matter (63.98%), followed by root (18.99%). The proportion of the dry matter accumulation in stem was highest (64.28%) in HC2, followed by V36 (64.04%). The average dry matters were 76.83% and 20.56%. in stems and leaves, respectively. The proportion of the macroand micronutrients in kenaf parts differed significantly among varieties. Nitrogen content had the highest proportion (27.54 to 28.04%) in leaves and lowest (8.06 to 8.24%) in stem, which followed by K, Ca, P and Mg. Most of the kenaf varieties showed variation in nutrient use efficiency (NUE), respect to the measured nutrient elements. The NUE values of < 1.0 g dry matter mg-1nutrient were observed for macronutrients, where as higher NUE values obtained for micronutrients. Total nutrient accumulation in the plant components differed among the kenaf varieties. Partitioning of dry matter and nutrients in kenaf provides a means to select better varieties and makes it possible to grow kenaf on BRIS soil using better fertilizer program.

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