Engelen S.,Joachim Grieg and Co |
Norouzzadeh P.,University of Kiel |
Dullaert W.,Institute of Transport |
Dullaert W.,Antwerp Maritime Academy |
Rahmani B.,University of Kiel
Energy Economics | Year: 2011
We investigate for the first time the spot rate dynamics of Very Large Gas Carriers (VLGCs) by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and rescaled range (R/S) analysis. Both non-parametric methods allow for a rigorous statistical analysis of the freight process by detecting correlation, scaling and fluctuation behavior regardless of nonlinearity issues. By applying different data-frequencies and a temporal framework, the Hurst exponents indicate that freight rates exhibit trend-reinforcement and persistence subject to limited time-dependency and controlled volatility. The found long-range dependence corroborates that a predictive freight model can be built undermining the efficient market hypothesis. Memory effects seem to each time build up until they are interrupted by seasonal transitions, stochastic events or cycles which all spark a sudden loss in correlations or increase in nonlinearities. The surrogate and shuffling data procedures demonstrate that, dependent on the data-frequency used, memory effects and fat-tail distributions should be contained differently in freight rate models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Hajderi A.,University Aleksander Moisiu |
Gjevori S.,Institute of Transport
International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering | Year: 2012
In this study we analyzed the amount of gas emissions, that bring cars into the atmosphere, according to their production years, in accordance with the requirements established manufacturing factories. Results show that pollution level from vehicles produced after 2000, is about 3 times smaller than those produced before 1995. The amount of polluting gases caused by vehicles is performed in an urban junction for current structure of vehicles in circulation and for the proposed structure with produced vehicles after 2000. Results show that it can achieve a reduction of pollution at the junction up to 2.8 times. At the end is treated and the impact of technical maintenance of vehicles in increasing of the environmental pollution level. The results show that in the current situation, 60% of vehicles exceed allowed pollution limits up to 3 times, and even vehicles produced after 2000. For the reduction of pollution we have proposed the installing of magnetic devices in used vehicles, from which we obtain a reduction of the pollution level at the junction up to 1.6 times. For limitation of produced vehicles before 1999 can be achieved by placing an additional customs tax and additional tax for vehicles, that exceed pollution limits in circulation. Also it need to establish, that degree of pollution in technical control become the stopper criterion for the circulation of the vehicle. These provisions will force users to better maintain vehicles or derive from circulation them. © December 2012 IJENS.
News Article | November 30, 2016
According to Statistics Norway, more than 2,600,000 private cars were registered in Norway last year. A very recent SINTEF report reveals that greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced corresponding to at least 100,000 of these vehicles by adopting the ISA ( Intelligent Speed Adaptation) system. "Our research shows that ISA is a really good way of persuading Norwegian motorists to reduce speed, and thus eliminate a large numbe of the most serious road accidents. It would also reduce greenhouse gas emissions and cut fuel consumption by at least 3.8 per cent," says SINTEF Senior adviser Terje Moen. Previous studies have shown that the system can help reduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries on Norwegian roads by 12 per cent. ISA, or Intelligent Speed Adaptation, is a system that monitors local speed limits and helps drivers to observe them. The system can be operated in three different modes: In the research project, the researchers used the advisory mode with auditory and visual display when motorists were driving too fast. GPS was used to determine the position of the vehicle, and the local speed limit was obtained from the National Highways Databank (NVDB). The display indicated the speed limit, and it flashed when this was exceeded. Sound was used to emphasise the warning when the speed limit (the ISA speed limit) was exceeded by four km/h or more," explains Mohn. If the system had been used in one of the other two modes, it would probably have had an even greater effect. SINTEF has drawn up the report on behalf of the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The researchers took the data used in the study, which lasted for three years between 2011 and 2014, from ISA systems that were installed in 440 of the Public Roads Administration's own cars. During the first month of the study, the system was only used to study the driving patterns of the staff; i.e. neither the graphic display nor the sound signal was used. All the drivers were warned in advance that their driving would be monitored. Thereafter, the ISA was activated, and for the next 33 months data were logged in order to document the effect of ISA on speeds, fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. ISA has a positive effect on speeding, i.e. the amount of time spent driving above the ISA speed limit. This was reduced from 5.9 to 3.4 per cent, or approximately 2.5 per cent. Fuel consumption and emissions were also both reduced. The SINTEF researcher believes that the difference would have been even greater if the drivers had not known that their driving behaviour was being monitored during the first month, before the ISA system was activated. "This may have encouraged our drivers to drive more slowly than they normally would have done. But the significant positive effect on typical speeds that we found when ISA was activated suggests that our results are robust, and are probably underrated rather than exaggerated," says Moen. One of the most effective systems Arild Ragnøy, a chief engineer with the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, says that ISA is one of the most effective speed control systems available. "The results of the SINTEF report show that ISA would probably have a positive effect on the number of accidents caused by excessive speed under given conditions," concludes Ragnøy. "Forced ISA is easiest to measure, since it is a simple matter to eliminate all the accidents caused by driving faster than the speed limit. A study carried out by the Institute of Transport Economics showed that 12 per cent of all fatalities and serious injuries on Norwegian roads could have been avoided if all private cars used ISA. This figure would have been lower using ISA's advisory mode, but there would still have been an effect," emphasises Ragnøy. The development of ISA started at the end of the 90s, and the system has been tested in several European countries since the turn of the century. "The system has proved to be very effective, but the question is whether people will accept their car overriding their desire to drive too fast. I can't imagine a politician daring to adopt compulsory use of ISA in all the cars in the country, even though the system has the potential to eliminate all speeding behaviour," says Moen. However, the SINTEF researcher believes that the system can be a useful aid for law-abiding motorists who want to avoid driving too fast. Many people find that driving with ISA is a pleasant experience, particularly on stretches of road where the speed limit changes frequently. And in the transport industry, the system could help to reduce stress in drivers who feel obliged to drive too fast in order to keep to timetables, whether they are driving buses or delivery vans. ISA could thus be a good means of satisfying HSE requirements for companies that are keen to do so. Transport industry customers can also be encouraged to buy transport services from companies that can document that they observe speed limits. Explore further: Drivers go faster than what they think is safe in roadworks zones
Brazda R.,Institute of Transport |
Zegzulka J.,Institute of Transport
Powder Technology | Year: 2011
Operators of bulk material silos frequently face various flow defects. These include defects in flow continuity, vaults, stick rings, and dead zones in the bulk material. The application of aeration systems in bulk material silos is an effective method used in order to eliminate the above defects. This paper presents a study of the effect of an aeration system on wall pressures σW of bulk material in a silo during a targeted bulk material aeration and relaxation process, and analyses the results in light of the calculation standards for designing bulk material silos, namely čSN 73 5570 a DIN 1055. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Zubrzycki J.,Lublin University of Technology |
Zubrzycki J.,Institute of Transport |
Swic A.,Lublin University of Technology |
Swic A.,Institute of Transport |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014
For an accepted physical model with allowance of cutting "on a trace" phenomena, the initial mathematical model for want of processing deep hole is considered. In the work has been presented principal assumption to modeling of vibrating process of deep hole drilling. To implement the process were used specially developed construction of waveguide transducer to generate the self-excited vibrations. The use of the transducer was aimed at increasing the efficiency of the process and improve the quality of performed hole. Performed model was used to process numerical researches to obtain the amplitude-phase characteristics of the drilling parameters. Then they were compared with the appropriate characteristics obtained from experimental studies. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Teichmann D.,Institute of Transport |
Dorda M.,Institute of Transport |
Olivkova I.,Institute of Transport
Komunikacie | Year: 2013
The article deals with solving a concrete problem occurring in the tramway net conditions in Ostrava urban mass transport. Nowadays a certain tramway set is in the traffic, where different vehicle types in terms of the capacity are assigned. For every route, one vehicle type is used. Information about the offered capacity and the passenger flows per hour is known. But the existing assignment of vehicles to single routes causes a greater discrepancy in terms of offered places and passengers' demand. The discrepancy can be measured by means of the ratio of these values on the most frequented route section. The discrepancy is characterized so that the ratios have very large deviation. In practice, it means that on the one hand there are routes with a high traveling comfort and on the other hand there are routes with a low traveling comfort. We can improve the situation by changing the vehicle types on single routes. At the same time we can reach the quality by improving offered services.
News Article | August 19, 2016
A recent survey of 8,000 different vehicle owners in Norway, conducted by the country’s Institute of Transport Economics, has revealed some interesting new data points — including the fact that all-electric owners in the country use their vehicles more often in general and in everyday traffic than plug-in hybrid owners do. Another particularly interesting data point was that plug-in hybrid (PHEV) owners in the country only drive in all-electric mode roughly 55% of the time (though, this climbs to 63% when on work trips). The new survey also revealed that fully electric vehicle (EV) owners are generally younger in age, are more likely to have multiple children, are more likely to own multiple vehicles, and typically have longer work commutes. The survey included 3,111 EV owners; 2,065 PHEV owners; and 3,080 internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle owners. It was conducted in March 2016. Some other interesting findings from the survey included: It should be noted that 29% of new car sales in Norway were electric car sales in June. Here are a few more charts on charging matters: Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter. James Ayre 's background is predominantly in geopolitics and history, but he has an obsessive interest in pretty much everything. After an early life spent in the Imperial Free City of Dortmund, James followed the river Ruhr to Cofbuokheim, where he attended the University of Astnide. And where he also briefly considered entering the coal mining business. He currently writes for a living, on a broad variety of subjects, ranging from science, to politics, to military history, to renewable energy. You can follow his work on Google+.