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New Philadelphia, PA, United States

Bauer R.C.,University of Pennsylvania | Tohyama J.,University of Pennsylvania | Cui J.,University of Pennsylvania | Cui J.,Cardiovascular Institute | And 18 more authors.

Background - Genome-wide association studies have established ADAMTS7 as a locus for coronary artery disease in humans. However, these studies fail to provide directionality for the association between ADAMTS7 and coronary artery disease. Previous reports have implicated ADAMTS7 in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration, but a role for and the direction of impact of this gene in atherogenesis have not been shown in relevant model systems. Methods and Results - We bred an Adamts7 whole-body knockout mouse onto both the Ldlr and Apoe knockout hyperlipidemic mouse models. Adamts7-/- /Ldlr-/- and Adamts7-/- /Apoe-/- mice displayed significant reductions in lesion formation in aortas and aortic roots compared with controls. Adamts7 knockout mice also showed reduced neointimal formation after femoral wire injury. Adamts7 expression was induced in response to injury and hyperlipidemia but was absent at later time points, and primary Adamts7 knockout vascular smooth muscle cells showed reduced migration in the setting of tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation. ADAMTS7 localized to cells positive for smooth muscle cell markers in human coronary artery disease lesions, and subcellular localization studies in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells placed ADAMTS7 at the cytoplasm and cell membrane, where it colocalized with markers of podosomes. Conclusions - These data represent the first in vivo experimental validation of the association of Adamts7 with atherogenesis, likely through modulation of vascular cell migration and matrix in atherosclerotic lesions. These results demonstrate that Adamts7 is proatherogenic, lending directionality to the original genetic association and supporting the concept that pharmacological inhibition of ADAMTS7 should be atheroprotective in humans, making it an attractive target for novel therapeutic interventions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Carlin J.,Institute of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics | Hill-Smith T.E.,Institute of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics | Lucki I.,Institute of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics | Reyes T.M.,Institute of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics

Objective To test whether high-fat diet (HFD) decreases dopaminergic tone in reward regions of the brain and evaluate whether these changes reverse after removal of the HFD. Design and Methods Male and female mice were fed a 60% HFD for 12 weeks. An additional group was evaluated 4 weeks after removal of the HFD. These groups were compared with control fed, age-matched controls. Sucrose and saccharin preference was measured along with mRNA expression of dopamine (DA)-related genes by Real Time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was measured by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and RT-qPCR. Results After chronic HFD, sucrose preference was reduced, and then normalized after removal of the HFD. Decreased expression of DA genes, decreased DA content and alterations in DAT promoter methylation, was observed. Importantly, response to HFD and the persistence of changes depended on sex and brain region. Conclusions These data identify diminished DA tone after early-life chronic HFD with a complex pattern of reversal and persistence that varies by both sex and brain region. Central nervous system changes that did not reverse after HFD withdrawal may contribute to the difficulty in maintaining weight-loss after diet intervention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society. Source

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