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Zhang T.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Wang C.G.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Lv J.C.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Wang R.S.,Shijiazhuang Animal Health Inspection Institute | Zhong X.H.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The experiment was performed to investigate the tetracycline resistance and antibiotic-resistant genotype of avian Escherichia coli in North China and to analyze the correlation of genotype and phenotype. The resistance of 164 E. coli isolates (from Beijing, Tianjin, inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Hebei regions of China) to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline was investigated by using a drug susceptibility test. The results show that the rate of resistance to tetracycline antibiotics was 89.63% (147/164). The higher resistance rate was 84.76% (139/164) to tetracycline and 70.12% (115/164) to doxycycline, and the lowest resistance rate was 4.88% (8/164) to minocycline. The distribution of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM) in avian E. coli isolates was detected by PCR. Of the isolates, 82.32% (135/164) carried tetracycline resistance genes. The positive rates of tetA, tetB, and tetM were 57.93% (95/164), 38.41% (63/164), and 10.97% (18/164), respectively. No tetC was amplified in avian E. coli isolates. The total positive rate of resistance genes (82.32%) was almost equal to the total rate of resistance to tetracycline antibiotics (89.63%). Thus, the positive rate of genotype was basically in line with that of phenotype for tetracycline resistance. The tetracycline resistance genes are widely distributed in E. coli and their main resistance mechanism to tetracycline is the active efflux effect mediated by tetA and tetB. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Liu Z.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Xing J.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Huang Y.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | Bo R.,Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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