Vedam-Mai V.,University of Florida |
Van Battum E.Y.,Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and science NIN KNAW |
Kamphuis W.,Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and science NIN KNAW |
Feenstra M.G.P.,NIN KNAW |
And 4 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a powerful surgical therapy for the management of treatment-resistant movement disorders, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Although DBS may be clinically effective in many cases, its mode of action is still elusive. It is unclear which neural cell types are involved in the mechanism of DBS, and how high-frequency stimulation of these cells may lead to alleviation of the clinical symptoms. Neurons have commonly been a main focus in the many theories explaining the working mechanism of DBS. Recent data, however, demonstrates that astrocytes may be active players in the DBS mechanism of action. In this review article, we will discuss the potential role of reactive and neurogenic astrocytes (neural progenitors) in DBS. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source
Stewart S.E.,Harvard University |
Stewart S.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Stewart S.E.,University of British Columbia |
Yu D.,Harvard University |
And 145 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1465 cases, 5557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469 410 autosomal and 9657 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two P-values were located within DLGAP1 (P=2.49 × 10-6 and P=3.44 × 10 -6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a P-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the case-control samples, the P-value for this variant was 3.62 × 10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation QTLs (P<0.001) and frontal lobe expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (P=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (P<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source
Davis L.K.,University of Chicago |
Yu D.,Harvard University |
Yu D.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard |
Keenan C.L.,University of Chicago |
And 147 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013
The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS), using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12) for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07) for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum) for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002). These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed) from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures. Source