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Ramli Z.,Institute of the Malay World and Civilisation ATMA | Abdul Rahman N.H.S.N.,Institute of the Malay World and Civilisation ATMA | Samian A.L.,Institute of the Malay World and Civilisation ATMA | Razman M.R.,National University of Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

This research was conducted to determine the origin of votive tablets found in prehistoric and proto-historic site of Chawas Cave in Hulu Kelantan. The votive tablets found in Chawas Cave showed several Buddhist images which are associated with the Srivijaya Kingdom which existed from 7th century AD until 12th century AD. To determine if the votive tablets were produced by communities that lived in Hulu Kelantan, hence the study of the chemical composition of the votive tablets should be carried out. Two techniques were employed in this research, namely the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The techniques will determine the mineral content as well as the major and trace element content of the votive tablets. Analysis showed that all the votive tablet samples have mineral known as clinochlore. Clinochlore is one of the chlorites, namely a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole and biotite. The votive tablets were found in a cave which consisted of limestone cave formation and it showed that the votive tablets were not produced by the local community of Hulu Kelantan. Major elements also showed that the chemical composition of the votive tablets is not similar to the composition of clay samples taken from several rivers in Hulu Kelantan. © 2014 Maxwell Scientific Organization.

Yousofi M.,National University of Malaysia | Hashim R.S.,National University of Malaysia | Musa M.F.,Institute of the Malay World And Civilisation ATMA
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2014

The need for perfection is an innate feeling in all human beings and a broader sense of it would be people’s craving to make a utopian society. Utopianism is rooted in religions like Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Hinduism. It is also discussed in many Western works trying to depict an ideal society like Plato’s The Republic and More’s Utopia. The utopian features raised by them are illustrated in many literary works and utopian fictions as is the case with Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. This paper attempts to analyze some common Western utopian features presented in Robinson Crusoe and compare them with Islamic traditions which describe the golden era of the Messiah of Islam. By referring to two utopian features of economic prosperity and spirituality, the essay concludes that the discipline of comparative literature provides an opportunity to compare literary works with discussions on Islamic studies and although Robinson Crusoe is set in a Christian context, it has some features in common with the Islamic Utopia. © Australian International Academic Centre, Australia.

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