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Kilkenny, Ireland

The Institute of Technology, Carlow is located to the south of Carlow, Ireland on the Kilkenny Road. It was the first such college announced and located in 1964. Wikipedia.

Narciandi F.,Trinity College Dublin | Lloyd A.,Institute of Technology Carlow | Meade K.G.,Teagasc | O'Farrelly C.,Trinity College Dublin
Reproduction, Fertility and Development

β-defensins are effector molecules of the innate immune system, found in many diverse species. Their presence in invertebrates as well as vertebrates suggests highly conserved functional roles. Most β-defensins are believed to act as antimicrobial agents at epithelial surfaces, although additional functions have also been described, including immune regulatory activity, wound repair and a role in coat-colour determination. High expression of β-defensins have been found in testis and epididymidal epithelium as well as in the seminal fluid of humans, macaque, rat, mouse and cow. Human and macaque β-defensins have recently been shown to affect sperm motility while a mutation in β-defensin 126 is associated with reduced fertility in men. Genetic variation in bovine defensin genes may explain the increased incidence of low fertility in cattle. Here, we present a summary of the known functions of β-defensins as well as their emerging role in reproduction and their potential to improve fertility in cattle. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2014. Source

The recent publication of national men's health policies in Ireland and Australia marks the first attempts by state governments anywhere in the world to target men as a specific population group for the strategic planning of health. The impetus for policy action in both countries can be traced to an increasing concern about sex differences in health status between men and women; a growing awareness of the need for a more gender-specific approach to health policy; and an expanding men's health field at a research, advocacy and community/voluntary level. This paper will describe the background to men's health policy development in Ireland and Australia; outline the aims, methodologies and key principles used for policy development; and highlight the principal priorities for policy action. It will pay particular attention to the challenges associated with transitioning from policy development to implementation, and reflect on some of the key lessons learned to date. © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Source

White A.,Leeds Beckett University | Richardson N.,Institute of Technology Carlow
Public Health

This paper will argue that it should no longer be seen as acceptable to present data that is limited to just a population wide or age standardised sex analysis. Such blunt approaches miss the opportunity to develop our understanding of the pivotal role that sex and gender play in health, wellbeing and illness. Taking what we have referred to as a gendered epidemiological approach, would: (i) ensure the routine inclusion of sex differences, (ii) explore how sex differences can be analysed in conjunction with other factors influenced by gender (age, social class, education, marital status etc), (iii) highlight differences within each sex and not just between the sexes, and (iv) apply a gendered lens to the interpretation of the findings. This more nuanced stance is required to ensure that the complexity of men and women can be reflected in the field of public health. © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Source

Clarke N.,National Ancer Registry Ireland | Clarke N.,University College Cork | Sharp L.,National Ancer Registry Ireland | Osborne A.,Institute of Technology Carlow | Kearney P.M.,University College Cork
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the second in females worldwide. Incidence and mortality are higher in men than women. Colorectal cancer screening is effective in reducing mortality. Internationally, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly being recommended as the primary screening test. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether uptake of FIT screening differs between men than women. Methods: We searched Pub Med and Embase for peerreviewed articles published in English during 2000-2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) or observational studies of screening using FIT that quantified numbers invited and participating by gender. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Results: Six hundred and eighty-five citations were identified, 19 meeting the inclusion criteria. Random effects meta-analysis found male uptake was significantly lower than female uptake [odds ratio (OR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.95; P < 0.01]. This generally persisted throughout subgroup analysis of study design (RCTs vs. observational studies and study quality), screening organization (methods of invitation, number of samples, age range of screening, recommendations, and reminders), and setting. Conclusions: Meta analysis of FIT screening studies indicates significantly lower uptake among men. Impact: Further investigation is required into factors influencing acceptability and participation of FIT screening in both sexes. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Broin D.O.,Institute of Technology Carlow
Proceedings - 2011 3rd International Conferenceon Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, VS-Games 2011

Flow is a highly desirable state that is characterised by absorption in an activity, and it is one of the principal reasons people play games. Three key conditions are necessary for a person to experience flow: clear goals, immediate feedback, and a balance between challenges and a person's perception of his/her skills. Most games adequately meet the clear goal and feedback conditions, but the balancing of challenges and skills is often lacking. For a player to maintain flow throughout a game, he must be continually learning. However, in a serious game, unlike a game for entertainment, in-game goals cannot simply be any goals that balance the challenges and skills - they must be chosen so that the particular learning outcomes of the game will be achieved. We propose an approach whose aim is to enable the player to experience flow most of the time, as he progresses towards the required standard of the learning outcomes of the game. This approach employs a user model that represents a player's perception of his/her skills and an index of the learning outcomes required for in-game goals to predict to some degree whether the player will go into flow. Moreover, it uses criteria based assessment and shows how this is well suited to modifying the challenge of in-game goals, in order to make it more likely that the challenges and skills are balanced so that a player experiences flow. We describe a serious game currently being developed for learning software development, which incorporates this approach. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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