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Turbiak J.,Institute of Technology and Life science in Falenty
Journal of Water and Land Development | Year: 2012

The paper presents results of a two-year study on methane emission carried out in lysimetric station situated on Kuwasy peatland in the Biebrza River valley. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of methane emission from peat-muck soil in relation to ground water level and fertilisation. Methane emission was determined with the chamber method using photo-acoustic probe. Methane emission significantly depended on the ground water level. The largest CH4 emission was found at full saturation of soil with water. With the decrease of ground water table the emission of methane decreased. Mineral fertilisation increased CH4 emission. At ground water table depth of 50 cm, CH4 emission from fertilised variant was by 42.3% bigger than from non-fertilised variant. Peat-muck soils overgrown by meadows in the Biebrza River valley were found to be an important source of methane emission. In the vegetation period at ground water table depths of 0, 25, 50 and 75 cm methane emission was 502, 361, 198, 141 kg ha-1 (210 d) -1, respectively. © 2012 Polish Academy Sciences (PAN) in Warsaw.

At present, atmospheric precipitation is considered a cause of environmental pollution. Less attention is paid to nutrients in rainfall that might supply plant requirements. Hence, there is a need to assess relationships between rainfall, groundwater and the soil solution in the context of their mineral content (including magnesium and calcium) essential for soil fertility as well as proper plant growth and development. Such an attempt was made based on long-term meadow experiments run in the vicinity of the village Falenty, the Province of Mazowsze (województwo mazowieckie). The relationships between the Ca and Mg content in wet precipitations in Falenty, and in groundwater and the soil solution under long-term meadow experiments were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations and loads of these elements were compared between wet precipitation, groundwater and the soil solution. The positive effect of rainfall Ca and Mg on soil water is differentiated by the significant variability of both concentrations and loads of Ca in precipitation. The fact that Ca binds more strongly to soil than Mg may result in the lack of a positive effect of Ca on the soil solution. The beneficial influence of Ca concentrations on soil solutions depend on the acid reaction of soil. No such relationship was observed for Mg. This confirms the influence of differences in soil pH, soil abundance and different solubility of the two elements on the chemical composition of soil waters.

Jaszczynski J.,Institute of Technology and Life science in Falenty
Journal of Water and Land Development | Year: 2015

The object of this study was the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solution related to groundwater table, soil temperature, moisture, redox potential and intensive storm rain and their changes during ten years (2001-2010). The studies were localized in drained and agriculturally used Kuwasy Mire situated in the middle basin of the Biebrza River, north-eastern Poland. The study site was situated on a low peat soil managed as intensively used grassland. The soil was recognized as peat-muck in the second stage of the mucking process. DOC concentration was determined by means of the flow colorimetric method using the Skalar equipment. Mean in the whole study period DOC concentration in soil solution was 72 mg·dm-3. A significant positive correlation was observed between DOC concentration and soil temperature at 30 cm depth. The highest DOC concentrations were observed from July to October accompanied by the lowest ground water level. The DOC concentration in soil solution showed also a significant correlation with soil redox potential at 20 cm depth - a border between muck and peat layers. This layer is potentially most active with respect to biochemical transformation. There was no relationship between DOC concentration and soil moisture. However, the influence of torrential rains on the intensity of DOC removal was demonstrated in this study. © Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Land Reclamation 2015.

Kanecka-Geszke E.,Institute of Technology and Life science in Falenty
Journal of Water and Land Development | Year: 2014

The paper presents results of a study on changes of water resources under the common osier (Salix viminalis L.) crop in relation to local weather conditions. Field studies were carried out since April till October of the years 2008 and 2010 in a productive field of energetic osier situated in north-eastern part of Bydgoszcz County. The study involved measurements of moisture in 100 cm soil profiles in the osier field of annual regrowth every ten days. The common osier was grown on mineral soil where atmospheric precipitation was the only water source and ground waters were unavailable for plants. Performed studies showed that changes in water reserves in both the main root zone (0-50 cm) and in the whole soil profile were similar in the vegetation period of the same year. In a very dry vegetation season (2008), soil moisture remained at a level of hardly available water. In an average season (2010) soil moisture was at a level of field water capacity for plants. © Institute of Technology and Life Science, 2014.

mietanka M.,Institute of Technology and Life science in Falenty
Journal of Water and Land Development | Year: 2014

The water pollution in areas with intensive agriculture is growing rapidly. Computer model is a tool which can help in finding solutions for water pollution reduction and help in creation of catchment management plans. In this research the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to test the influence of introduction of permanent grasslands into the catchment on nitrate nitrogen load in surface water. Small catchment of upper Zglowiaczka River in central Poland with intensive agriculture was chosen as a test site. Model was fed with data about land use, soils, weather, elevation and management practices and calibrated and validated using flow data and nitrate nitrogen loads data. Then 2 scenarios with land use change were tested. A part of arable land was changed into permanent grasslands. The results show that permanent grasslands are effective in reducing nitrate nitrogen load. The load was reduced by 19% when permanent grasslands constituted 10% of arable land and by 38% with permanent grasslands taking up 20% of arable land. © Institute of Technology and Life Science, 2014.

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