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Talla Gueye M.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Seyni Cissokho P.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Goergen G.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Ndiaye S.,University Of Thies | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2012

Powdered maize cobs were tested as an alternative for pesticide use in stored maize. Five doses (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g/250 g seed) of powdered maize cobs applied at particle sizes of 1.4 and 0.4 mm diameter were compared with actellic powder against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for 120 days. Mortality and survival data showed that cob powders did not act as fumigant but exerted a potent inhibition of progeny on direct contact with S. zeamais adults. The particle size of powdered cobs had no effect on maize damage and losses. At doses equal to or higher than 6 g powdered maize cobs/250 g grain maize, i.e. 2.4% (w/w), damage to grain was < 5% and weight losses < 1%. The protection offered at the highest dose was comparable to the pesticide control. The use of powdered maize cobs is discussed as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides for protection of maize against S. zeamais. © 2012 ICIPE.


Aaron G.J.,University of California at Davis | Aaron G.J.,British Petroleum | Lo N.B.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Hess S.Y.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

We completed a series of studies to assess the acceptability of zinc-fortified, cereal-based complementary foods and zinc-fortified wheat breads. Young children and their caregivers completed acceptability tests with complementary foods fortified with iron only (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram cereal flour), or the same level of iron and zinc (240 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram cereal flour), and the caregivers completed triangle taste tests to compare the same products. A separate group of adult participants completed acceptability tests with wheat breads fortified with iron and folic acid (15 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram flour and 1.5 mg folic acid per kilogram flour) or the same levels of iron-folic acid and 2 levels of zinc (63 mg zinc or 126 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour). Finally, a threshold test was administered to another group of adult participants to compare nonfortified wheat bread to breads fortified with zinc in 80 mg increments ranging from 80 to 400 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour. All products were acceptable when compared to non-zinc-fortified equivalents, and were well liked by the respective participants. For the triangle tests, caregivers were not able to detect significant differences between products. For threshold tests, adult participants detected differences in breads prepared from fortified wheat flour at 80 mg, 160 mg, and 320 mg zinc per kilogram flour, but not at 240 mg and 400 mg zinc per kilogram flour, respectively, when compared to nonfortified bread equivalents. Zinc fortification of cereal flours in the ranges of fortification that were tested does not adversely affect the acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from these flours.Practical Application: Fortification of staple food products is a low-cost approach to deliver additional micronutrients (including zinc) to large segments of a population. Determining the acceptability of products fortified with zinc is an important step in the development of zinc fortification programs. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Gueye M.T.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Diallo A.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Gueye S.,Ceres | Seck D.,Ceres | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants | Year: 2016

Abstract: Chemical composition of Hyptis spicigera, H. suaveolens and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation of plant leaves from Senegal were determined by GC-MS / GC-FID. A total of twenty-nine, thirty-seven and thirty-four components were identified for H. spicigera, H. suaveolens and E. camaldulensis, respectively. H. spicigera oil contained as main components α-pinene (38.9 %), β- pinene (14.7 %) and caryophyllene (12.6 %). For H. suaveolens we obtained at first, in February 1,8-Cineole (19.8%), caryophyllene (16.9 %) and sabinene (11.6%); at March, sabinene and caryophyllene represented 27.9 % and 20.8 % respectively while 1,8-Cineole decreased from 19.8 to 1.1%. The most important component revealed with E. camaldulensis were spathulenol (31.6 %), p-cymene (11.3 %), bicyclogermacrene (8.2 %) and β-selinene (7.9 %). © 2016 Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons.


Kane N.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Ahmedna M.,North Carolina A&T State University | Yu J.,North Carolina A&T State University
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

A peanut milk-based infant formula was developed from peanuts. The effects of extraction pH and temperature on the yield and protein content of spray-dried peanut milk were evaluated. Peanut-based infant formulas (PBIF-75) was developed using spray-dried peanut milk and a premix of vitamins and minerals. Physical properties, approximate composition, minerals, vitamins and amino acid composition, and caloric value of PBIF-75 were evaluated and compared to those of soya-based infant formula (SBIF) and World Health Organization (WHO) F-75. Spray-dried peanut milk yield was 15-18% with a protein content of 30-45%, depending on the extraction pH and temperature. PBIF-75 was nearly identical to WHO F-75 in terms of amino acid profile, most vitamins and minerals, proximate composition, caloric value, and physicochemical characteristics such as water activity and colour. However, few of the vitamins and minerals in PBIF-75 will require further adjustment to fully meet WHO's requirements of a recovery formula for undernourished infants. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Gueye M.T.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Seck D.,Ceres | Wathelet J.-P.,University of Liège | Lognay G.,University of Liège
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2012

A survey was conducted in Senegal in the Eastern departments of Tambacounda, Bakel and Kedougou and in Casamance mainland in the departments of Kolda, Sedhiou and Velingara encompassing 330 maize users in 185 villages. Six major types and two modes of storage were found. Differences are presented in relation to ethnic groups who do not adopt the same methods of storage. The impact of types and storage methods are reviewed with regard to loss levels, perception of the producers on the main storage determinants, specificities inherent to ethnic groups, localities as well as pesticides and natural products used in post-harvest treatment.


Gueye M.T.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Seck D.,Ceres | Wathelet J.-P.,University of Liège | Lognay G.,University of Liège
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2011

Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to pollution associated with pesticides use, selection of resistant strains, environmental pollution, poisoning, the search for alternatives is needed. It is reported on different methods of protecting stocks performed alternatively or in combination with pesticides. The major pest species encountered, particularly Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), insect emerging in Senegal, could be controlled by alternative methods including specially the use of insecticide plants. Different aspects related to this alternative way to chemical pesticides are reviewed herein.


Diop Ndiaye N.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Dhuique-Mayer C.,Montpellier SupAgro | Cisse M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Dornier M.,Montpellier SupAgro
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel (ditax) is a forest tree found in Senegal the fruits of which are characterized by an attractive green flesh with a high amount in ascorbic acid. It is generally consumed as a nectar in Senegal. In this study, the main pigments of ditax pulp were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Pheophytin a (128 mg/kg), which represents 58% of the total pigments, followed by hydroxypheophytin a′ (33 mg/kg), chlorophyll b (24 mg/kg), and chlorophyll a (20 mg/kg) was the major pigment of ditax pulp. Lutein and β-carotene were present in lower amounts (4.6 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively). The thermal degradation kinetics of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a′, and ascorbic acid were determined at temperatures ranging from 60 to 95 °C in ditax nectar. Pheophytin a was the most heat sensitive. Thermal processing induced the formation of degradation products such as pyropheophytin a and pyropheophytin b. The kinetics parameters have been calculated according to the models of Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. Following the Arrhenius relation, activation energies of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a′, and ascorbic acid were, respectively, 79, 74, and 46 kJ mol-1. Losses calculated during isothermal treatments were close to experimental losses in pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a′, and ascorbic acid. The Eyring model can then be used to predict chlorophyll pigments and vitamin C losses during pasteurization of the nectar (<10%). © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Diallo Y.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Gueye M.T.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Sakho M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Gbaguidi Darboux P.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2013

Cassava is one of the main plants and starchy roots grown in the world. In 2008, the total yield of cassava in West Africa represented 29% of the world production. However, in many West African countries such as Senegal, cassava is not used as a staple food. In fact, the processing techniques used for cassava are poorly known. In addition, the chemical composition of local cassava varieties has not yet been determined, nor has their toxicity been assessed. In 2004, showing an aggressive agricultural policy and revived interest, the Senegalese government launched a major program for intensifying the production of cassava for food security purposes. Cassava is an important source of calories and can be an interesting option for imported rice and wheat. Although many food products made from cassava are well known in the region, their use in the Senegalese diet is rare. Nevertheless, these cassava products are found as delicacies in some restaurants, and are consumed by the Senegalese and many other Africans. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the nutritional value and the dietary possibilities of using cassava as a staple food in Senegal.


Beye C.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Beye C.,University of Liège | Tounkara L.S.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | Seck M.A.,Institute Of Technology Alimentaire | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2015

Introduction. Widespread in the plant kingdom, anthocyanins are the subject of a large number of studies related mainly to their instability in the conditions in which they are used, along with the beneficial effect of their consumption on diseases caused by the accumulation of free radicals. Literature. These aspects are particularly important since anthocyanins are extracted from fruits and vegetables for their use as natural food colorants. This literature review will focus on properties that might be damaged during extraction and purification of anthocyanins. The procedures for the extraction of anthocyanins were reviewed in order to identify opportunities for the use of plant materials in which these molecules are present in large amounts. Conclusions. The color and stability of anthocyanin extracts from fruits and vegetables are strongly influenced by their composition. However, recent improvements in food colorant formulation methods offer new opportunities for the exploitation of vegetables with a high anthocyanin content. © 2015, FAC UNIV SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES GEMBLOUX .All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Institute Of Technology Alimentaire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2011

Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel (ditax) is a forest tree found in Senegal the fruits of which are characterized by an attractive green flesh with a high amount in ascorbic acid. It is generally consumed as a nectar in Senegal. In this study, the main pigments of ditax pulp were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Pheophytin a (128 mg/kg), which represents 58% of the total pigments, followed by hydroxypheophytin a (33 mg/kg), chlorophyll b (24 mg/kg), and chlorophyll a (20 mg/kg) was the major pigment of ditax pulp. Lutein and -carotene were present in lower amounts (4.6 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively). The thermal degradation kinetics of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a, and ascorbic acid were determined at temperatures ranging from 60 to 95 C in ditax nectar. Pheophytin a was the most heat sensitive. Thermal processing induced the formation of degradation products such as pyropheophytin a and pyropheophytin b. The kinetics parameters have been calculated according to the models of Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. Following the Arrhenius relation, activation energies of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a, and ascorbic acid were, respectively, 79, 74, and 46 kJ mol(-1). Losses calculated during isothermal treatments were close to experimental losses in pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a, and ascorbic acid. The Eyring model can then be used to predict chlorophyll pigments and vitamin C losses during pasteurization of the nectar (<10%).

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