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Gyoda, Japan

Institute of Technologists is a private university in Gyōda, Saitama, Japan, established in 2001. The school name was proposed by philosopher Umehara Takeshi, who later became the president of the school. Wikipedia.


Bhatt T.,Institute of Technologists
Journal of food science | Year: 2013

Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise identify the supply-chain partner who provided the information prior to sharing this information with product tracing technology providers. The 9 traceability solution providers who agreed to participate in this project have their systems deployed in a wide range of sectors within the food industry including, but not limited to, livestock, dairy, produce, fruits, seafood, meat, and pork; as well as in pharmaceutical, automotive, retail, and other industries. Some have also been implemented across the globe including Canada, China, USA, Norway, and the EU, among others. This broad commercial use ensures that the findings of this work are applicable to a broad spectrum of the food system. Six of the 9 participants successfully completed the data entry phase of this test. To verify successful data entry for these 6, a demo or screenshots of the data set from each system's user interface was requested. Only 4 of the 6 were able to provide us with this evidence for verification. Of the 6 that completed data entry and moved on to the scenarios phase of the test, 5 were able to provide us with the responses to the scenarios. Time metrics were useful for evaluating the scalability and usability of each technology. Scalability was derived from the time it took to enter the nonstandardized data set into the system (ranges from 7 to 11 d). Usability was derived from the time it took to query the scenarios and provide the results (from a few hours to a week). The time was measured in days it took for the participants to respond after we supplied them all the information they would need to successfully execute each test/scenario. Two of the technology solution providers successfully implemented and participated in a proof-of-concept interoperable framework during Year 2 of this study. While not required, they also demonstrated this interoperability capability on the FSMA-mandated food product tracing pilots for the U.S. FDA. This has significant real-world impact since the demonstration of interoperability enables U.S. FDA to obtain evidence on the importance and impact of data-sharing moving forward. Another real-world accomplishment is the modification or upgrade of commercial technology solutions to enhance or implement interoperability. As these systems get deployed by clients in the food industry, interoperability will no longer be an afterthought but will be built into their traceability systems. In turn, industry and regulators will better understand the capabilities of the currently available technologies, and the technology provider community will identify ways in which their systems may be further developed to increase interoperability and utility. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®


Bhatt T.,Institute of Technologists
Journal of food science | Year: 2013

IFT's Traceability Improvement Initiative aims to advance work in the area of food product tracing through several means including hosted events where thought leaders exchange knowledge and ideas. In August 2011, the Initiative, in collaboration with GS1 US, convened a group of 50 product tracing stakeholders, as a follow-on to a successful event the month prior. Representatives conducting pilots or implementation studies in produce, seafood, dairy, and other industries discussed the objectives, challenges and learnings. Some of the learnings from on-going initiatives included the sense that better information management provides a return of investment; data often exist but may not necessarily be appropriately linked through the supply chain; and enhanced product tracing enables better accountability and quality control. Challenges identified in enabling traceability throughout the supply chain were the distribution complexity; the need for training, communication, and collaboration; improving the reliability, quality and security of data captured, stored and shared as well as the importance of standards in data and interoperability of technology. Several approaches to overcoming these challenges were discussed. The first approach incrementally improves upon the current "one up/one down" system by requiring electronic records and tracking internal as well as external critical tracking events. The benefits of this approach are its similarity to existing regulatory requirements and low cost of implementation; resulting in a higher probability of adoption. The major disadvantage to this process is the longer response time required during a trace (back or forward). The second approach is similar to a "pedigree" approach where historical information about the food travels with it through the value chain. A major advantage of this approach is the quickest response time during a trace. Some of the disadvantages of this approach are potential for misuse of data, the volume of data required to be maintained at value chain end points, and data privacy concerns. The third approach requires individual nodes within the value chain to maintain electronic records for its own data and make them available for querying during a traceback for outbreak investigation. The major advantage of this approach is the protection of confidential information and the potential for quicker access during a trace. However, the primary disadvantage of this approach is the need for greater computational power and a more complex mechanism to linking the value chain through the data. As next steps, a subgroup will work on clarifying the approach to meeting the goals of traceability, better defining critical tracking events, and articulating the strategy and return on investment from a regulatory and industry perspective. This will result in improved alignment of on-going traceability pilots and initiatives as well as a more actionable guidance document for public review. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®


Kamimoto T.,Institute of Technologists | Murayama Y.,Niigata Power Co.
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2011

In the Hottel and Broughton equation, the spectral emissivity of soot in flames in the visible wavelength range is characterized by an index a=1:39, which represents the effect of wavelength on extinction (Hottel and Broughton, 1932). In this study, the spectral specific extinction for diesel soot is examined first by focusing on soot layers sampled on a quartz window from the engine cylinder, andα=1:38 is obtained. To examine the physics governing the value ofα=1:38, a calculation of spectral extinction is performed using the Rayleigh-Debye- Gans (RDG) theory of soot aggregate scattering with an assumption of constant refractive index. The calculated spectral extinction provides a=1:31 close toα=1:38, suggesting that scattering, as well as absorption, contributes largely to the spectral extinction of diesel soot. The attenuation of line-of-sight beam intensity due to out-scattering and the augmentation of the beam intensity as a result of scattering of incoming radiation from other regions are investigated using soot aggregate scattering theory. Based on this approach, a new formula of apparent spectral emissivity ε a is proposed, allowing a theoretical explanation of the physical meaning of the KL factor defined iinfn the Hottel and Broughton equation, which has remained vague for many years. Finally the two-colour flame temperature and the KL factor in a production engine are calculated using the new emissivity formula and are compared with those obtained using the conventional emissivity formula. The result shows that the two-colour method using the conventional emissivity formula remains quite useful, and provides values of temperature and KL factor within 1-2 per cent of those obtained with the new emissivity formula. copyright © 2012 by institution of mechanical engineers.


Bhatt T.,Institute of Technologists
Journal of food science | Year: 2013

The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®


Newsome R.L.,Institute of Technologists
Journal of food science | Year: 2013

At a discussion-based forum of 50 leaders in the area of food product tracing, participants recognized the need for the development of a common vision for a simple, low cost and implementable traceability approach. A key theme that emerged during the day's discussions revolved around not reinventing the wheel: there are many efforts underway, including numerous pilots, and these efforts should be collaborative. The group sought more information on current initiatives and felt that learning from the experiences of others could help form a realistic vision for the future. Although any forthcoming actions from the US FDA are unknown, industry fully expects that improvements in product tracing will be necessary, and expects that industry itself (through the "demand" side) will enact requirements that may surpass regulatory mandates. A chief concern is uniform adoption, which will require outreach to and support from the global community as well as small firms that may lack the resources and education to keep up. Ultimately, an approach that is global, economical, scalable, and inclusive of firms of all sizes who handles all types of food products, will have the greatest likelihood of success. While the ability to rapidly link products across the supply chain serves as an ideal goal, there are still substantial concerns to be addressed, particularly regarding confidentiality of data, and who will have access to what information under what circumstances, which was woven into virtually every discussion topic. Who will spearhead the development of the visions is a question, but there was general agreement that a joint partnership which includes all stakeholders is a necessity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

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