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Cloud forests characterised by persistent low-level cloud cover often have an abundance of mosses that cover the ground and vegetation. These forests are referred to as mossy forests. The remaining patches of mossy forests in the Central Cordillera of Northern Philippines harbour diverse unknown endemic floral species that sustain the headwaters of the major rivers on the region. Stunted or bonsai-type plants cover the highest ridges. Different species of moss, herb and grass blanket the exposed peaks. Various tree species dominate the emergent layer, usually with wide canopies, while varied shrub, bush and fern species occupy the understories. Epiphytic species cover crooked tree trunks, branches and twigs. Varied ground mosses and wild seedlings carpet the moist forest floors. The biodiversity of mossy tree species is considered in terms of population density, species richness, species diversity and index of similarity. The lower elevation of the mossy mountain range was found to have higher tree diversity indices in terms of species diversity, richness and evenness than the high elevation. An index of similarity of 57.14% between the two sampling blocks indicated that some tree species were restricted by altitudinal gradient, resulting in a decrease in species richness as altitude increases and an increase in population density. Anthropogenic disturbances at the accessible part of the lower mountain range include burning, logging, clearing for bird entrapment and commercial farming in the many arable areas of the mountain range. The Central Cordillera mossy forest harbours diverse flora, as indicated by the initial identification of 37 tree species representing 20 genera and 17 families in 6400 m2 sampling plots. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Yeh Y.-C.,Institute of Teacher Education
Educational Technology and Society

Online learning communities are an important means of sharing and creating knowledge. Online behaviors and online roles can reveal how online learning communities function. However, no study has elucidated the relationships among online behaviors, online roles, and online learning communities. In this study, 32 preservice teachers participated in an 18-week instruction program. Analyses of online group discussions revealed the following: (a) of thirteen identified online behaviors, the most common were constructing a positive atmosphere, providing opinions for group assignments, and providing reminders of assignment-related work; (b) of eight online roles identified within a group, the most common roles were information providers, opinion providers, and troublemakers; (c) four online learning communities based on "collaboration"and "participation"were identified. The evolution of these online learning communities indicates the interrelationships among online behaviors, roles, and learning communities. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS). Source

Sharaai A.H.,Institute of Teacher Education | Mahmood N.Z.,University of Malaya | Sulaiman A.H.,University of Malaya
Scientific Research and Essays

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method to analyze a particular product or service; from the beginning of the process it is extracted until it is no more in use or much to be known as 'cradle to grave analysis'. The LCA analysis includes collection of inventory that is all types of emissions and also waste products. After that, this inventory would be translated or transformed to show the impact on environment in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Two LCIA methods has been accepted such as midpoint and endpoint approach. The EDIP 97 is a LCIA method which uses midpoint approach. From the analysis done on the two stages, life cycle assessment for potable water production that is construction stage and production stage; it is found that production stage contributes the highest impact on acidification and euthrophication which is derived from the PAC production process. Whereas, the construction stage contributes two main impacts which are human toxicity (water) and chronic water ecotoxicity which are produced through the process of steel production. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Lin C.F.,National Taiwan University | Yeh Y.-C.,Institute of Teacher Education | Hung Y.H.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Chang R.I.,National Taiwan University
Computers and Education

Customizing a learning environment to optimize personal learning has recently become a popular trend in e-learning. Because creativity has become an essential skill in the current e-learning epoch, this study aims to develop a personalized creativity learning system (PCLS) that is based on the data mining technique of decision trees to provide personalized learning paths for optimizing the performance of creativity. The PCLS includes a series of creativity tasks as well as a questionnaire regarding several key variables. Ninety-two college students were included in this study to examine the effectiveness of the PCLS. The experimental results show that, when the learning path suggested by a hybrid decision tree is employed, the learners have a 90% probability of obtaining an above-average creativity score, which suggests that the employed data mining technique can be a good vehicle for providing adaptive learning that is related to creativity. Moreover, the findings in this study shed light on what components should be accounted for when designing a personalized creativity learning system as well as how to integrate personalized learning and game-based learning into a creative learning program to maximize learner motivation and learning effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sharaai A.H.,Institute of Teacher Education | Mahmood N.Z.,University of Malaya | Sulaiman A.H.,University of Malaya
African Journal of Biotechnology

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method use to analyze a product or a service from the beginning of the process where it is extracted until it is not useful anymore or it is known as cradle-to-grave analysis. LCA analysis includes the inventory collecting all types of emission and waste. After it is done, the inventory will be interpreted to the environmental impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Two LCIA methods identified were "midpoint and endpoint" approaches. The ecological scarcity (ecopoints) is an LCIA method using "midpoint" approach. From the analysis to both life cycle stages, analysis for potable water production which was construction stage and production stage indicated that both stages contributed two main impacts namely: NOx and SOx. In the production stage, NOx and SOx were released from PAC production. On the other hand, for the construction stage, NOx and SOx were released from steel production process. © 2012 Academic Journals. Source

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