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Jeong S.-J.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Shin M.-J.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Jeong S.-Y.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Yang H.-J.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Jeong D.-Y.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Rice bran contains both excellent nutritional value and functional advantages. Its utilization is limited due to reducing texture and low storage. To satisfy various tastes, Bacillus spp. having high amylase and protease activities were selected. Using the strains, we made whole grain soybean Meju with a reduced manufacturing period by increasing the concentration of total nitrogen. We made soy sauces with mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran at 10:0, 9:1, 7:3, and 5:5, and then compared their physiochemical properties. After 2 weeks of fermentation, the sugar content increased from 21~22% to 30~32%. However, pH and salinity showed no differences. At a ratio of 9:1, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen content, and total free amino acid contents were the highest at 1.62%, 652.52 mg%, and 8,804.03 mg/kg, respectively, compared to other mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran. Especially, the contents of aspartic and glutamic acid, which increase delicate flavoring, were higher in our soy sauce compared to those of general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, which were 504.25 and 1,262.25 mg/kg, respectively. Serine and alanine, which are related to sweet taste, were present at 49.50 and 518.75 mg/kg, respectively, which were the highest among all mixing ratios, at a ratio of 9:1. Compared to general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, the contents of histamine and tyramine among biogenic amines decreased to 35.85 and 41.04 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, a soy bean and rice bran mixing ratio of 9:1 was determined to be the optimal mixing ratio in the sensory evaluation.


Lee R.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Cho H.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Shin M.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Yang J.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | And 8 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to evaluate the possible utility of 3 Aspergillus oryzae strains (designated as SCF-6, SCF-37, and JJSH-1), isolated from Korean traditional fermented materials, as starter cultures in the soybean paste industry. Doenjang (fermented soybean paste) was made with the A. oryzae strains described above, and its quality attributes were analyzed during a 60-day aging period. No significant differences in pH, moisture, or salt content were detected among the doenjang varieties made with the 3 Aspergillus strains. The concentration of amino-nitrogen, an indicator of doenjang aging, increased in each sample during the aging period. After the 60-day aging period, the contents of amino-nitrogen and free amino acid in doenjang made with SCF-6 showed the highest concentrations among the tested doenjang products: 971.6 and 8,064.9 mg%, respectively. Measurements of the color of doenjang showed that lightness and yellowness decreased during the aging period, but redness increased. After the 60-day aging period, the Y-aminobutyric-n-acid (GABA) concentrations in doenjang made with SCF-6 and SCF-37 were 61.3 and 53.7 mg%, respectively. In doenjang samples, aflatoxin was not detected and the concentrations of biogenic amines (histamine and tyramine) were 2.55-5.60 mg/kg and 3.70-5.87 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicated that A. oryzae SCF-6 isolated from traditional fermented foods could be useful as a starter culture in the soybean paste industry. © 2016, The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Lee S.-H.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Lee M.-Y.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Lim S.-R.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Bae J.-H.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microes
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This study investigated the detection of naturally occurring preservatives in fermented soybean products. Benzoic acid was identified in all of the analyzed samples (gochujang, ganjang, doenjang, and cheonggugjang). The amounts of benzoic acid were in the range of 0.85-11.69 ppm in gochujang, 1.13-7.95 ppm in ganjang, 0.74-17.77 ppm in doenjang, and 1.03-7.64 ppm in cheonggugjang. Propionic acid was found in 24 of 29 gochujang samples, 21 of 30 ganjang samples, 31 of 33 doenjang samples, and 28 of 30 cheonggugjang samples. The amounts of propionic acid ranged from N.D. (not detected) to 49.29 ppm in gochujang, N.D. to 144.67 ppm in ganjang, N.D. to 309.14 ppm in doenjang, and N.D. to 113.07 ppm in cheonggugjang. Among the fermented soybean products, doenjang had the highest average benzoic acid content whereas cheonggugjang had the highest average propionic acid content. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


Baek H.-I.,Chonbuk National University | Jung S.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | Ha K.-C.,Chonbuk National University | Kim H.-M.,Chonbuk National University | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2015

Background Studies in animals have demonstrated the antiallergenic properties of Chongkukjang (CKJ), a traditional Korean food made by fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis. CKJ might therefore be used as an ingredient in a functional food designed to suppress allergies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CKJ on histamine-induced skin wheal response in healthy participants. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Sixty participants (48 women and 12 men) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: One group received 35 g CKJ daily for 12 weeks, and the other received a placebo at the same dosing frequency. A skin prick test with histamine (10 mg/mL) was conducted on the ventral forearm 10 cm from the elbow, and assessed 15 minutes later. Outcomes included measurement of efficacy [skin wheal response, immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, eosinophil, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)], and safety (adverse events, laboratory test results, electrocardiogram, anthropometric values, and vital signs). Results Fifty-five participants (28 in the CKJ group and 27 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, participants in the CKJ group showed a significant reduction in histamine-induced skin wheal areas compared with placebo group (p < 0.05). At 12 weeks, the CKJ group showed a significant improvement in percentage change from baseline in histamine-induced wheal area, compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). CKJ did not influence blood levels of IgE, histamine, interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, eosinophil, or ECP. Conclusion Oral administration of CKJ for 12 weeks resulted in a reduction of the skin wheal response to histamine, with no apparent adverse effects. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01402141. © 2015, Korea Food Research Institute, Published by Elsevier.


Song N.-E.,Chonbuk National University | Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-E.,Chonbuk National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

We developed and investigated sugar-soaked black soybean snack (SSBSS) to increase the availability of black soybean. The most desirable moisture contents and texture properties of hardness and gumminess in preparing SSBSS were obtained at a sugar concentration of 40°brix for the first sugar soaking step and 50°brix for the second sugar soaking process. Sensory evaluation also showed that SSBSS prepared with 40°brix for first sugar soaking step and 50°brix for the second sugar soaking process was graded higher than the other samples in all questionnaires. Prepared SSBSS had a final moisture content of 5.50±0.39%, crude protein content of 16.25±0.07%, and crude lipid content of 34.26±3.95%. The ash and carbohydrate contents of SSBSS were 0.51±0.05% and 43.48±0.01%, respectively, and the final glucose content was 10.20±0.10°brix. GABA concentration was 15.24±1.47 mg/g and the contents of daidzein, genistein, daidzin, and genistin were 695.7±6.08 μg/g, 810.6±3.9 μg/g, 755.8±39.6 μg/g, and 1640.7±390.8 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the phenolic compound and flavonoid contents in SSBSS were 0.16±0.01 and 2.33±0.40 mg/g, respectively.


Shin D.,Korea Food Research Institute | Jeong D.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2015

Soybeans are produced in large amounts around the world. In Asian countries, soybeans have been used mostly as a source of food, and in Western countries, they have been used as animal feed and in non-food products. However, since scientific evidence of the dietary benefits of soybeans has been published, the use of soybeans as a food ingredient has increased. In Asia, soybeans have been used in various ways on their own and also combined with fermented products to be used as seasonings or side dishes. According to some sources, the use of soybeans in Korea dates back to B.C. Currently, more research is being conducted on soybeans, and the benefits of fermented soybean products are coming to light. Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce), Doenjang (fermented soybean paste), and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste) are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation. Copyright © 2015, Korea Food Research Institute, Published by Elsevier.


Son Y.-L.,Chonbuk National University | Kim H.-Y.,Institute of Sunchang Fermented Soybean Products | Thiyagarajan S.,Chonbuk National University | Xu J.J.,Chonbuk National University | And 3 more authors.
Mycobiology | Year: 2012

cDNA of the glx1 gene encoding glyoxal oxidase (GLX) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant GLX (rGLX) produces H2O2 over 7.0nmol/min/mL using methyl glyoxal as a substrate. Use of rGLX as a generator of H2O2 improved the coupled reaction with recombinant manganese peroxidase resulting in decolorization of malachite green up to 150μM within 90min.© The Korean Society of Mycology.

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