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Ahadian S.,University of Toronto | Obregon R.,Tohoku University | Ramon-Azcon J.,CIBER ISCIII | Salazar G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2016

Stem cells are one of the key components in tissue engineering (TE) for tissue repair and regeneration. However, further studies are necessary in order to provide a suitable microenvironment for stem cells to differentiate and thereby regenerate tissues. Carbon-based nanomaterials (i.e., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene) have recently attracted much significant attention as tools for investigating and controlling stem cell biology and fate due to their remarkable characteristics, including unique mechanical properties, tunable surface chemistry, and high electrical conductivity. In this review paper, we describe applications of CNTs and graphene in stem cell differentiation and consequently tissue formation in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Cytotoxicity of CNTs and graphene is also addressed. Finally, we discuss potential challenges and future directions for applications of CNTs and graphene in the stem cell culture and differentiation. © 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Ramon-Azcon J.,Tohoku University | Ahadian S.,Tohoku University | Obregon R.,Tohoku University | Shiku H.,Tohoku University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Stem cells are a key element in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, they require a suitable microenvironment to grow and regenerate. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention as promising materials for stem cell research due to their extraordinary properties, such as their extracellular matrix-like structure, high mechanical strength, optical properties, and high electrical conductivity. Of particular interest is the use of CNTs as biomimetic substrates to control the differentiation of stem cells. CNTs have also been combined with commonly used scaffolds to fabricate functional scaffolds to direct stem cell fate. CNTs can also be used for stem cell labeling due to their high optical absorbance in the near-infrared regime. In this paper, we review and discuss the applications of CNTs in stem cell research along with CNT toxicity issues. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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