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Jalili M.,Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran ISIRI | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Control | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assay a chemical method for the reduction of aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1), B 2 (AFB 2), G 1 (AFG 1), G 2 (AFG 2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in black pepper. The efficiency of AF and OTA reduction by sodium hydrosulphite (Na 2S 2O 4) at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) in artificially contaminated black pepper was investigated under atmospheric and high pressure. The first treatment was performed under atmospheric pressure in boiling water at 100°C for 30min, and the second treatment was performed under high pressure (1.5bar) at 121°C for 15s. The concentrations of the AFs and OTA were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorescence detection (FD). Maximal respective reductions of 96.0%, 96.1%, 77.7%, 100% and 100% for OTA, AFB 1, AFB 2, AFG 1 and AFG 2, respectively, were achieved by treatment with 2% Na 2S 2O 4 under high pressure. These findings suggest that AFs and OTA can be degraded by treatment with Na 2S 2O 4 and heat under pressure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mazaheri M.,Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran ISIRI
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Fungal secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) produced as contaminants on food and feed commodities are considered to be economically and toxicologically important worldwide (Ajoy Kumar Choudhary et al., 2010). Aflatoxins are a group of closely related mycotoxins that are toxic and commonly found in agricultural products like cereals, oil seeds and nuts. Mycotoxins are a potential risk to human and animal health and thereby much time and effort has been expended on seeking methods for removal or destruction of mycotoxins in contaminated products. The UV radiation could decrease the concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in pistachio. This effect on high concentration of aflatoxin B 1 is more considerable than lower concentration. As the results showed, the aflatoxin concentration decreased from 100 to 78.189 ppb after 3 hours under espousing UV radiation at 87.5 μw/cm2. This amount reached to 42.193 ppb after 13 hours. Source


Alizadeh A.,Islamic Azad University at Saveh | Esmaeili V.,Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine | Shahverdi A.,Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine | Rashidi L.,Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran ISIRI
Cell Journal | Year: 2014

Results: Dietary FO had significant positive effects on all sperm quality and quantity parameters compared with the CTR during the feeding period (p<0.05). The positive effects of FO on sperm concentration and total sperm output were observed at one and two months after removal of FO (p<0.05), whereas other sperm parameters were unaffected. Before feeding, C14 (myristic acid), C16 (palmitic acid), C18 (stearic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid: DHA) were the primary sperm FA. FO in the diet increased sperm DHA, C14:0 and C18:0 during the feeding period (p<0.05).Conclusion: The present study showed not only manipulation of ram sperm fatty acid profiles by dietary FO and sperm parameters during the feeding period, but also the persistency of unique effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids up to two months following its removal from the diet. Also, we recommend that sperm fatty acid profiles should be comprehensively analyzed and monitored.Objective: The effects of dietary fish oil on semen quality and sperm fatty acid profiles during consumption of n-3 fatty acids as well as the persistency of fatty acids in ram's sperm after removing dietary oil from the diet were investigated.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly assigned 9 Zandi rams to two groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets): control (CTR; n=5) and fish oil (FO; n=4) for 70 days with a constant level of vitamin E in both groups. Semen was collected at the first week and at the last week of the feeding period (phase 1). After the feeding period, all rams were fed a conventional diet and semen samples were collected one and two months after removal of FO (phase 2). The sperm parameters and fatty acid profiles were measured by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The completely randomized design was used and data were analyzed with SPSS version 16. Source


Jalili M.,University Putra Malaysia | Jalili M.,Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran ISIRI | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

A simple method for the reduction of aflatoxins B1,(AFB1),B2 (AFB2),G1 (AFG2), GB2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in white pepper was studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the effect of four variables, which included time (20-60 min), temperature (30-70°C), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) (0-1%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (1-3%) during the washing step of white pepper. The efficacy of the method was evaluated by the determination of mycotoxins by HPLC with fluorescence detection (FD). Statistical analysis showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model, with a multiple regression coefficient (R2) in the range of 0.805-0.907 for AFG2 and AFG1, respectively. The optimal condition was 57.8 min, 62.0°C, of 0.6% (w/v) and 2.8% (v/v) for time, temperature, Ca(OH)2 and H2O2 respectively. By applying the optimum condition, the mycotoxins reduction was found to be in the range of 68.5-100% for AFB2 and AFG1 respectively. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Zargaraan A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Saghafi Z.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hasandokht Firouz M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Fadavi G.,Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran ISIRI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2015

This paper aimed to investigate the effect of rheological properties on the sensory acceptance of two (Ferni and cocoa drink) model dysphagia-oriented food products. The results showed that the cocoa drink with the highest viscosity had the maximum score in overall liking and ease of swallowing. Among the Ferni samples, the one with minimum viscosity had the highest score in overall liking and ease of swallowing. A negative correlation ratio was found between n (flow behavior index in power law model), n′ (viscoelastic nature of sample) and hysteresis area and ease of swallowing in the cocoa drink. The three mentioned parameters showed a positive correlation ratio with the ease of swallowing scores for the Ferni samples. These results recommended that, in nectar-like products, higher viscosities might lead to ease of swallowing, but in the spoon-thick category, higher viscosities did not necessarily result in the increased ease of swallowing. Practical Applications: Most studies in the field of rheology-dysphagia have been only focused on the rheological experiments of dysphagia-oriented food products (DOFPs) and do not deal with the sensory acceptance of these products. Moreover, developing clinically relevant criteria for classifying DOFPs is helpful for both food rheologists and healthcare teams. The present study provided additional evidence for the inadequacy of current classification strategies for DOFPs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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